Difference between revisions of "Elon musk"

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(Created page with "{{For|the book|Elon Musk: Tesla, SpaceX, and the Quest for a Fantastic Future}} {{pp-vandalism|expiry=03:59, 16 August 2019|small=yes}} {{Use mdy dates|date=May 2018}} {{Use A...")
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{{For|the book|Elon Musk: Tesla, SpaceX, and the Quest for a Fantastic Future}}
Elon Musk is a Business Magnet.
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{{Use mdy dates|date=May 2018}}
{{Use American English|date=November 2015}}
{{Infobox person
| name              = Elon Musk
| honorific_suffix  = {{post-nominals|FRS|size=100%}}
| image              = Elon Musk 2015.jpg
| alt                = A close-up of Musk's face while giving a speech
| caption            = Musk in 2015
| birth_name        = Elon Reeve Musk
| birth_date        = {{Birth date and age|mf=yes|1971|6|28}}
| birth_place        = [[Pretoria]], [[Transvaal (province)|Transvaal]], <br /> [[South Africa]]
| residence          = [[Bel Air, Los Angeles]], [[California]], United States<ref name="forbesbuyshome.com">{{cite news |title=Billionaire Tesla CEO Elon Musk Buys Neighbor's Home in Bel Air For Million |work=[[Forbes]] |url=https://www.forbes.com/sites/trulia/2013/11/01/billionaire-tesla-ceo-elon-musk-buys-home/ |accessdate=November 1, 2013}}</ref><ref name=bloombergbuyshome>{{cite news |title=Inside Elon Musk's M Bel Air Mansion |work=[[Bloomberg News]] |url=https://www.bloomberg.com/news/videos/b/6e27fcba-309d-494e-b87d-c73fb8bb1750 |accessdate=August 21, 2013 |deadurl=yes |archiveurl=https://web.archive.org/web/20150207033543/http://www.bloomberg.com/news/videos/b/6e27fcba-309d-494e-b87d-c73fb8bb1750 |archivedate=February 7, 2015 |df=mdy-all }}</ref>
| citizenship        = {{Plainlist|
* South Africa (1971–present)
* Canada (1989–present)
* United States (2002–present)
| alma mater        = {{plainlist|
* [[Queen's University]]
* [[University of Pennsylvania]]<ref>{{Cite news |url=http://www.mercurynews.com/business/ci_25541448/timeline-elon-musk-accomplishments |title=Timeline: Elon Musk's accomplishments |last=Hull |first=Dana |date=April 11, 2014 |accessdate=June 11, 2015 |via=[[Mercury News]]}}</ref><ref>{{cite web |url=http://csq.com/2013/01/elon-musk-patriarchs-and-prodigies/ |title=Elon Musk: Patriarchs and Prodigies |year=2013 |accessdate=June 11, 2015 |website=CSQ |publisher=C-Suite Quarterly |last=Zanerhaft |first=Jaron}}</ref>}}
| occupation        = [[Entrepreneur]], [[engineer]], and [[investor]]
| known_for          =
| networth          = [[United States dollar|US$]]20.2&nbsp;billion (August 2018)<!--DO NOT UPDATE THIS UNLESS YOU UPDATE THE ACCESS DATE--><ref>{{Cite news|url=https://www.forbes.com/profile/elon-musk/|title=Elon Musk|work=Forbes|access-date=August 25, 2018|language=en}}</ref>
| title              = {{plainlist|
* CEO, Lead Designer of [[SpaceX]]
* CEO of [[Tesla, Inc.]]
* CEO of [[Neuralink]]
* Founder of [[The Boring Company]]}}
| awards            = [[Fellow of the Royal Society]]
| party              = [[Independent voter|Independent]]
| spouse            = {{Plainlist|
* {{marriage|[[Justine Musk]]|2000|2008|reason=divorced}}
* {{marriage|[[Talulah Riley]]|2010|2012|reason=divorced}} <br> ({{abbr|m.|married}} 2013; {{abbr|div.|divorced}} 2016)<ref>{{Cite news |url=https://www.theguardian.com/technology/2016/mar/21/elon-musk-talulah-riley-file-divorce-second-marriage |title=Actor Talulah Riley files to divorce billionaire Elon Musk, again |date=March 21, 2016 |accessdate=April 20, 2016 |work=[[The Guardian]] |quote="The pair first married in 2010 and divorced in 2012. They remarried 18 months later."}}</ref>
| children          = 6 (1 deceased)
| parents            = {{plainlist|
* Errol Musk (father)
* [[Maye Musk]] (mother)}}
| relatives          = {{plainlist|
* [[Kimbal Musk]] (brother)
* [[Tosca Musk]] (sister)
* [[Lyndon Rive]] (cousin)}}
| signature          = Elon Musk Signature.png
| signature_alt      = Elon Musk
'''Elon Reeve Musk''' {{postnominals|FRS}} ({{IPAc-en|ˈ|iː|l|ɒ|n}}; born June 28, 1971) is a<!-- Please do not re-add "South African-born" or "Canadian" per talk page consensus and MOS:BLPLEAD --> [[business magnate]], [[investor]]<ref>{{Cite news |url =https://www.telegraph.co.uk/technology/news/11220326/Elon-Musk-to-launch-fleet-of-internet-satellites.html |title=Elon Musk 'to launch fleet of internet satellites' |date=November 10, 2014 |accessdate=June 23, 2015 |work=[[The Daily Telegraph]] |last=Curtis |first=Sophie |quote="Elon Musk, inventor and business magnate" |location=London}}</ref><ref>{{cite web |url=https://www.bloomberg.com/amp/news/articles/2012-09-13/elon-musk-the-21st-century-industrialist |title=Elon Musk, the 21st Century Industrialist |date=September 13, 2012 |accessdate=June 23, 2015 |website=Bloomberg BusinessWeek |last=Vance |first=Ashlee |deadurl=yes |archiveurl=https://web.archive.org/web/20170426091133/https://www.bloomberg.com/amp/news/articles/2012-09-13/elon-musk-the-21st-century-industrialist |archivedate=April 26, 2017 |df=mdy-all }}</ref> and [[engineer]].<ref>{{cite web |url=https://www.asme.org/career-education/early-career-engineers/me-today/engineer-in-focus-elon-musk |title=Early Career Engineers, Conferences and Careers |publisher=asme.org |accessdate=November 4, 2015}}</ref> He is the founder, [[chief executive officer|CEO]], and lead designer of [[SpaceX]];<ref name="SpaceX">{{cite web |last1=Shanklin |first1=Emily |title=Elon Musk |url=http://www.spacex.com/elon-musk |website=SpaceX |accessdate=June 17, 2017 |language=en |date=March 27, 2017}}</ref> co-founder, CEO, and product architect of [[Tesla, Inc.]];<ref>{{Cite web|url=https://www.tesla.com/elon-musk|title=Elon Musk {{!}} Tesla|website=www.tesla.com|access-date=2018-09-07}}</ref> co-founder and CEO of [[Neuralink]]; and co-founder of [[PayPal]].
In December 2016, he was ranked 21st on the ''[[Forbes]]'' list of [[Forbes list of The World's Most Powerful People|The World's Most Powerful People]].<ref name="auto1">{{cite news |title=The World's Most Powerful People |author= |url=https://www.forbes.com/sites/davidewalt/2016/12/14/the-worlds-most-powerful-people-2016/#26ec03f2368d |newspaper=Forbes |date=December 2016 |accessdate=December 14, 2016}}</ref> {{As of|2018|August|post=,}} he has a net worth of $20.2 billion and is listed by ''Forbes'' as the [[The World's Billionaires|46th-richest person in the world]].<ref>{{cite web |title=The World's Billionaires List |url=https://www.forbes.com/billionaires/list/2/#version:realtime |website=Forbes |accessdate=August 25, 2018}}</ref>
Born in [[Pretoria, South Africa]], Musk taught himself computer programming at the age of 10. He moved to Canada when he was 17 to attend [[Queen's University]]. He transferred to the [[University of Pennsylvania]] two years later, where he received an economics degree from the [[Wharton School of the University of Pennsylvania|Wharton School]] and a degree in physics from the [[University of Pennsylvania School of Arts and Sciences|College of Arts and Sciences]]. He began a Ph.D. in applied physics and material sciences at [[Stanford University]] in 1995 but dropped out after two days to pursue an entrepreneurial career. He subsequently co-founded [[Zip2]], a web software company, which was acquired by [[Compaq]] for $340 million in 1999. Musk then founded [[X.com]], an online bank. It merged with [[Confinity]] in 2000 and became [[PayPal]], which was bought by [[eBay]] for $1.5 billion in October 2002.{{refn|<ref>{{cite news |author=Martin LaMonica |title=Tesla Motors founders: Now there are five |url=https://www.cnet.com/news/tesla-motors-founders-now-there-are-five/ |quote= |newspaper=CNET |date=September 21, 2009}}</ref><ref>{{cite news |url=https://techcrunch.com/gallery/a-brief-history-of-tesla |title=A Brief history of Tesla |work=Tech Crunch |date=January 4, 2013 |accessdate=April 21, 2014 |quote="Tesla was founded not by Elon Musk, but rather by Martin Eberhard and Marc Tarpenning in July 2003. The two bootstrapped the fledgling auto company until Elon Musk led the company's &nbsp;million Series A financing round in February 2004, when Musk became the company's Chairman of the Board."}}</ref><ref>{{cite news |url=https://www.nytimes.com/2014/03/17/technology/start-ups-aim-to-conquer-space-market.html |title=Start-Ups Aim to Conquer Space Market |work=The New York Times |date=March 16, 2014 |accessdate=April 21, 2014 |quote=Space Exploration Technologies, or Space X, started by the Tesla founder Elon Musk |first1=Quentin |last1=Hardy |first2=Nick |last2=Bilton}}</ref><ref>{{cite web |url=http://www.entrepreneur.com/article/232954 |title=Trust Your Own Focus Group of One |publisher=Entrepreneur.com |date=April 11, 2014 |accessdate=April 21, 2014 |quote=Elon Musk, founder of PayPal, Tesla and SpaceX}}</ref>}}
In May 2002, Musk founded SpaceX, an aerospace manufacturer and space transport services company, of which he is CEO and lead designer. He helped fund Tesla, Inc., an electric vehicle and solar panel manufacturer, in 2003, and became its CEO and product architect. In 2006, he inspired the creation of [[SolarCity]], a solar energy services company that is now a subsidiary of Tesla, and operates as its chairman. In 2015, Musk co-founded [[OpenAI]], a nonprofit research company that aims to promote [[friendly artificial intelligence]]. In July 2016, he co-founded Neuralink, a neurotechnology company focused on developing [[brain–computer interface]]s, and is its CEO.  In December 2016, Musk founded [[The Boring Company]], an infrastructure and tunnel-construction company.
In addition to his primary business pursuits, Musk has envisioned a high-speed transportation system known as the [[Hyperloop]], and has proposed a [[VTOL|vertical take-off and landing]] supersonic jet [[electric aircraft]] with electric fan propulsion, known as the [[Musk electric jet]].<ref>{{cite web |url=http://www.aviation.com/general-aviation/elon-musk-toying-designs-electric-jet/ |title=Elon Musk 'Toying' with Designs for Electric Jet |author=Jonathan Charlton |publisher=Aviation.com |accessdate=May 30, 2015}}</ref><ref>{{cite av media |url=https://www.youtube.com/watch?v=IxTPKIvn--A |title=Elon Musk on dodging a nervous breakdown (2013) |date=March 16, 2015 |publisher=YouTube}}</ref>
Musk has stated that the goals of SpaceX, Tesla, and SolarCity revolve around his vision to change the world and humanity.<ref>{{cite web |url=https://www.youtube.com/watch?v=IgKWPdJWuBQ |title=Youtube Video - Elon Musk: The mind behind Tesla, SpaceX, SolarCity}}</ref> His goals include reducing [[global warming]] through [[sustainable energy]] production and consumption and reducing the "[[existential risk|risk]] of [[human extinction]]" by establishing a [[Colonization of Mars|human colony on Mars]].<ref>{{cite web |url=https://aeon.co/essays/elon-musk-puts-his-case-for-a-multi-planet-civilisation |title=Elon Musk puts his case for a multi-planet civilisation |author=Ross Andersen |date=September 30, 2014 |work=Aeon |accessdate=February 21, 2016}}</ref>
==Early life==
===Early childhood===
Musk was born on June 28, 1971, in [[Pretoria]], Transvaal, South Africa,<ref>{{cite web |url=http://www.britannica.com/EBchecked/topic/1676437/Elon-Musk |title=Elon Musk (South African entrepreneur) |publisher=Britannica Online Encyclopedia |accessdate=December 23, 2012}}</ref> the son of [[Maye Musk]] (''née'' Haldeman), a model and [[dietitian]] from [[Regina, Saskatchewan|Regina]], [[Saskatchewan]], Canada,<ref name="Biog">{{Triangulation|203|His Biography author [[Ashlee Vance]]}}, discussion of his family starts around the 15th minute</ref> and Errol Musk, a South African [[Electromechanical Engineering|electromechanical engineer]], pilot, and sailor. He has a younger brother, [[Kimbal Musk|Kimbal]] (born 1972), and a younger sister, [[Tosca Musk|Tosca]] (born 1974).{{refn|<ref name="Biog"/><ref>{{cite journal |author=Friend, Tad |title=Plugged In |year=2009 |journal=The New Yorker |volume=85 |issue=23–30 |url=https://books.google.com/books?id=UaAeAQAAMAAJ&q=Maye+Musk+elon+father&dq=Maye+Musk+elon+father |accessdate=December 23, 2012 |page=53}}</ref><ref name=stlrafa>{{cite web |url=http://www.solartoday-digital.org/solartoday/201105/?pg=22 |title=A Family Leads to the Installer Universe |date=May 2011 |first=Seth |last=Masia |publisher=Solar Today |accessdate=December 23, 2012}}</ref><ref name=forbes20120326>{{cite news |url=https://www.forbes.com/sites/hannahelliott/2012/03/26/at-home-with-elon-musk-the-soon-to-be-bachelor-billionaire |title=At Home With Elon Musk: The (Soon-to-Be) Bachelor Billionaire |date=March 3, 2012 |work=Forbes |first=Hannah |last=Elliott |accessdate=August 12, 2013}}</ref>}} His paternal grandmother was British, and he also has [[Pennsylvania Dutch]] ancestry.<ref name="sjmn20140411">{{cite news |last=Hall |first=Dana |title=Rocket Man: The otherworldly ambitions of Elon Musk |url=http://www.mercurynews.com/business/ci_25541126/rocket-man-otherworldy-ambitions-elon-musk |accessdate=April 14, 2014 |newspaper=San Jose Mercury News |date=April 11, 2014}}</ref><ref>{{cite news |url=https://www.forbes.com/sites/hannahelliott/2012/03/26/at-home-with-elon-musk-the-soon-to-be-bachelor-billionaire/ |title=At Home With Elon Musk: The (Soon-to-Be) Bachelor Billionaire |author=Hannah Elliott |work=Forbes |accessdate=May 30, 2015}}</ref> His maternal grandfather Joshua Haldeman was American, from Minnesota<ref>{{cite web |url=https://twitter.com/elonmusk/status/828300245998116864 |title=Tweet |date=February 5, 2017}}</ref> After his parents divorced in 1980, Musk lived mostly with his father in the suburbs of Pretoria,<ref name=sjmn20140411/> which Musk chose two years after his parents split up, but now says was "not a good idea".<ref name=rollingstone20171115/>  As an adult, Musk has severed relations with his father.<ref name=rollingstone20171115/> He has a half-sister,<ref>{{cite web|title=2014: Rocket Man: The otherworldly ambitions of Elon Musk|url=https://www.mercurynews.com/2014/04/10/2014-rocket-man-the-otherworldly-ambitions-of-elon-musk/|website=The Mercury News|accessdate=January 21, 2018|date=April 10, 2014}}</ref> and half-brother.<ref>{{cite news|last1=Crilly|first1=Rob|title=Elon Musk's father has baby with step-daughter he has known since she was four|url=https://www.telegraph.co.uk/news/2018/03/25/elon-musks-father-has-baby-step-daughter-has-known-since-four/|accessdate=March 26, 2018|work=[[The Daily Telegraph|The Telegraph]]|date=March 25, 2018}}</ref>
During his childhood, Musk was an avid reader.<ref name="vance"/> At age 10, he developed an interest in [[computing]] with the [[Commodore VIC-20]].<ref name="Rue89-2015-05-28">{{cite news |url=http://rue89.nouvelobs.com/2015/05/27/elon-musk-tesla-spacex-genie-predateur-silicon-valley-259376 |title=Elon Musk (Tesla, SpaceX): génie ou prédateur de la Silicon Valley? |author=Pierre Haski |publisher=rue89.nouvelobs.com |date=May 28, 2015 |language=fr}}</ref> He taught himself [[computer programming]] at the age of 10, and by the age of 12 sold the [[code]] of a [[BASIC]]-based [[video game]] he created called ''Blastar'', to a magazine called ''PC and Office Technology'', for approximately $500.<ref name=play/><ref name="belfiore">{{cite book |first=Michael |last=Belfiore |title=Rocketeers |publisher=Harper Collins |year=2007 |isbn=978-0-06-114902-3 |chapter=Chapter 7: Orbit on a Shoestring |pages=166–95}}</ref> A web version of the game is available online.<ref name="play">{{cite news |url=https://www.theverge.com/2015/6/9/8752333/elon-musk-blastar-pc-game |title=Play the PC game Elon Musk wrote as a pre-teen}}</ref><ref>{{cite web |url=https://blastar-1984.appspot.com |title=Blastar for HTML5 |work=blastar-1984.appspot.com |accessdate=November 4, 2015}}</ref>
His childhood reading included [[Isaac Asimov]]'s ''[[Foundation series|Foundation]]'' series from which he drew the lesson that "you should try to take the set of actions that are likely to prolong civilization, minimize the probability of a dark age and reduce the length of a dark age if there is one."<ref name=rollingstone20171115/>
Musk was severely bullied throughout his childhood<ref name=rollingstone20171115/> and was once hospitalized when a group of boys threw him down a flight of [[stairs]] and then beat him until he lost [[consciousness]].<ref name="vance">{{cite book |last=Vance |first=Ashlee |date=2015 |title=Elon Musk: Tesla, SpaceX, and the Quest for a Fantastic Future |isbn=978-0062301239}}</ref><ref name="news24principalsaddened"/>
Musk attended [[Waterkloof House Preparatory School]], and [[Bryanston High School]]<ref name="news24principalsaddened">{{cite news |url=https://www.news24.com/SouthAfrica/News/Bryanston-High-School-saddened-by-Elon-Musk-bullying-20150723 |title=Bryanston High School saddened by Elon Musk bullying |author=Jenna Etheridge |publisher=news24.com |date=July 23, 2017}}</ref> before graduating from [[Pretoria Boys High School]]. Though Musk's father insisted that Elon go to college in [[Pretoria]], Musk became determined to move to the United States. As he states, "I remember thinking and seeing that America is where great things are possible, more than any other country in the world."<ref>Elon Musk, quoted in "Elon Musk Profiled: Bloomberg Risk Takers," www.bloomberg.com, August 3, 2013</ref>  Knowing it would be easy to get to the United States from Canada, he moved to Canada against his father's wishes in June 1989, just before his 18th{{nbsp}}birthday,<ref name=":2">{{cite web |url=http://www.boomsbeat.com/articles/323/20140214/50-things-you-probably-didnt-know-about-elon-musk.htm |title=37 Interesting Facts about Elon Musk, One of the Most Innovative Entrepreneurs of Our Time |date=February 14, 2014 |accessdate=June 10, 2015 |website=BoomsBeat.com}}{{reliable source|date=November 2017}}</ref> after obtaining a Canadian passport through his Canadian-born mother.<ref>{{cite news |url=https://www.telegraph.co.uk/culture/3666994/One-more-giant-leap.html |title=One more giant leap |last=Davis |first=Johnny |date=August 4, 2007 |work=The Daily Telegraph |accessdate=November 1, 2013 |location=London}}</ref><ref name="freshdialogues">{{cite web |url=http://www.freshdialogues.com/2013/02/07/transcript-of-elon-musk-interview-with-alison-van-diggelen-iron-man-growing-up-in-south-africa |title=Iron Man, Growing up in South Africa |last=Diggelen |first=Alison van |date=February 7, 2013 |work=Fresh Dialogues |quote=I actually filled out the forms for her and got her a Canadian passport, and me too. Within three weeks of getting my Canadian passport, I was in Canada. |accessdate=November 1, 2013}}</ref>
At age 17, in 1989, Elon Musk moved to Canada to attend Queen’s University and avoid mandatory service in the South African military. He left in 1992 to study business and physics at the University of Pennsylvania. He graduated with an undergraduate degree in economics and stayed for a second bachelor's degree in physics.
After leaving Penn, Elon Musk headed to Stanford University in California to pursue a PhD in energy physics. However, his move was timed perfectly with the Internet boom, and he dropped out of Stanford after just two days to become a part of it, launching his first company, Zip2 Corporation.<ref>https://www.biography.com/people/elon-musk-20837159</ref>
In 1995, Musk and his brother, [[Kimbal Musk|Kimbal]], started [[Zip2]], a web software company, with money raised from a small group of [[angel investor]]s.<ref name="rollingstone20171115">{{cite news|last1=Strauss|first1=Neil|title=Elon Musk: The Architect of Tomorrow|url=https://www.rollingstone.com/culture/features/elon-musk-inventors-plans-for-outer-space-cars-finding-love-w511747|accessdate=November 15, 2017|work=Rolling Stone|date=November 15, 2017}}</ref>
The company developed and marketed an Internet "city guide" for the [[newspaper]] publishing industry.<ref name="Friedman">{{citation |url=http://www.globalsecurity.org/org/news/2003/030422-space01.htm |title=Entrepreneur Tries His Midas Touch in Space |date=April 22, 2003 |first=Josh |last=Friedman |work=Los Angeles Times}}</ref> Musk obtained contracts with ''[[The New York Times]]'' and the ''[[Chicago Tribune]]''<ref name=paypalwars/> and persuaded the board of directors to abandon plans for a merger with [[CitySearch]].<ref name="Startup Playbook">{{cite book |title=The Startup Playbook: Secrets of the Fastest Growing Start-Ups from the founding Entrepreneurs |publisher=Chronicle Books |author1=Kidder, David |author2=Hoffman, Reid |year=2013 |location=San Francisco, CA |pages=2224–228 |isbn=978-1452105048}}</ref> While at Zip2, Musk wanted to become CEO; however, none of the board members would allow it.<ref name="vance"/> [[Compaq]] acquired Zip2 for {{US$|307{{nbsp}}million}} in cash<ref name="vance" />{{rp|109|quote=Then, in February 1999, the PC maker Cpmpaq Computer suddently offered to pay $307 million in cash for Zip2.}}  and {{US$|34{{nbsp}}million}} in [[stock options]]{{citation needed|date=May 2018}} in February 1999.<ref>{{cite web |url=http://news.cnet.com/Compaq+buys+Zip2/2100-1023_3-221675.html |title=Compaq buys Zip2 |first=Sandeep |last=Junnarkar |publisher=CNET |date=February 16, 1999}}</ref> Musk received {{US$|22&nbsp;million}} for his 7 percent share from the sale.<ref name="paypalwars"/><ref name="vance" />{{rp|109|quote=Mohr Davidow had made back twenty times its original investment, and Musk and Kimbal had come away with $22 million and $15 million, respectively.}}
===X.com and PayPal===
In March 1999, Musk co-founded [[X.com]], an online financial services and [[e-mail]] payment company, with {{US$|10{{nbsp}}million}} from the sale of Zip2.<ref name=":2"/><ref name=Friedman/><ref name="Startup Playbook"/> One year later, the company merged with [[Confinity]],<ref name="paypalwars">{{cite web |url=http://www.notablebiographies.com/news/Li-Ou/Musk-Elon.html#b |work=Advameg |title=Elon Musk Biography |date=August 23, 2005}}</ref><ref>{{cite book |last=Jackson |first=Erik |title=[[The PayPal Wars]] |year=2004 |publisher=World Ahead Publishing |location=Los Angeles, CA |pages=40, 69, 130, 163}}</ref> which had a money-transfer service called [[PayPal#History|PayPal]]. The merged company focused on the PayPal service and was renamed PayPal in 2001. PayPal's early growth was driven mainly by a [[viral marketing]] campaign where new customers were recruited when they received money through the service.<ref>{{cite video |url=http://ecorner.stanford.edu/authorMaterialInfo.html?mid=379 |work=Entrepreneurial Thought Leaders Lecture |title=Success Through Viral Marketing: PayPal |first=Elon |last=Musk |date=October 8, 2003}}</ref> Musk was ousted in October 2000 from his role as CEO (although he remained on the board) due to disagreements with other company leadership, notably over his desire to move PayPal's [[Unix]]-based infrastructure to [[Microsoft Windows]].<ref>{{cite web |title=The PayPal Mafia |url=http://fortune.com/2007/11/13/paypal-mafia/ |work=Fortune |accessdate=July 4, 2015}}</ref> In October 2002, PayPal was acquired by [[eBay]] for {{US$|1.5&nbsp;billion}} in stock, of which Musk received {{US$|165{{nbsp}}million}}.<ref>{{cite web |url=http://www.shareholder.com/Common/Edgar/1065088/891618-03-1538/03-00.pdf |publisher=eBay |title=SEC 10-K |format=PDF |date=December 31, 2002}}</ref> Before its sale, Musk, who was the company's largest [[shareholder]], owned 11.7% of PayPal's shares.<ref>{{cite web |url=https://www.sec.gov/Archives/edgar/data/1103415/000091205702009834/a2073071z10-k405.htm |publisher=Paypal |title=SEC 10-K |date=December 31, 2001}}</ref>
In July 2017, Musk purchased the domain {{mono|x.com}} from PayPal for an undisclosed amount stating that it has "great sentimental value" to him.<ref>{{cite tweet |user=elonmusk |author=Elon Musk |number=884580654117076992 |date=July 10, 2017 |title=Thanks PayPal for allowing me to buy back http://X.com ! No plans right now, but it has great sentimental value to me.}}</ref>
{{wikinews|SpaceX Falcon Heavy rocket blasts Elon Musk's personal Tesla into solar orbit}}
In 2001, Musk conceptualized "Mars Oasis", a project to land a miniature experimental [[greenhouse]] on Mars, containing food crops growing on Martian [[regolith]], in an attempt to regain [[public interest]] in space exploration.<ref>{{cite web |url=http://www.spaceref.com/news/viewsr.html?pid=3698 |title=Elon Musk, Life to Mars Foundation |work=Mars Now, a weekly column |first=John Carter |last=McKnight |publisher=Space Frontier Foundation |date=September 25, 2001}}</ref><ref name="spectrum">{{cite news |title=Risky Business |first=Elon |last=Musk |accessdate=April 27, 2014 |work=IEEE Spectrum |url=http://www.spectrum.ieee.org/aerospace/space-flight/risky-business}}</ref> In October 2001, Musk travelled to [[Moscow]] with Jim Cantrell (an aerospace supplies fixer), and [[Adeo Ressi]] (his best friend from college), to buy refurbished [[Dnepr (rocket)|Dnepr]] [[Intercontinental ballistic missile]]s (ICBMs) that could send the envisioned payloads into space. The group met with companies such as [[NPO Lavochkin]] and [[Kosmotras]]; however, according to Cantrell, Musk was seen as a novice and was consequently spat on by one of the Russian chief designers,<ref name=":0"/> and the group returned to the United States empty-handed. In February 2002, the group returned to Russia to look for three ICBMs, bringing along Mike Griffin. Griffin had worked for the CIA's venture capital arm, [[In-Q-Tel]], as well as NASA's [[Jet Propulsion Laboratory]], and was just leaving [[Orbital Sciences]], a maker of satellites and spacecraft. The group met again with Kosmotras, and were offered one rocket for {{US$|8&nbsp;million}}; however, this was seen by Musk as too expensive; Musk consequently stormed out of the meeting. On the flight back from Moscow, Musk realized that he could start a company that could build the affordable rockets he needed.<ref name=":0">{{Cite news |url=https://www.bloomberg.com/graphics/2015-elon-musk-spacex/ |title=Elon Musk's space dream almost killed Tesla |date=May 14, 2015 |accessdate=June 7, 2015 |website=Bloomberg L.P. |last=Vance |first=Ashlee}}</ref> According to early Tesla and SpaceX investor [[Steve Jurvetson]],<ref>{{cite web |url=http://www.businessinsider.com/steve-jurvetson-spacex-elon-musk-2012-9 |title=How Steve Jurvetson Saved Elon Musk |date=September 14, 2012 |work=Business Insider}}</ref> Musk calculated that the [[raw materials]] for building a rocket actually were only 3 percent of the sales price of a rocket at the time. It was concluded that theoretically, by applying [[vertical integration]] and the modular approach from software engineering, SpaceX could cut launch price by a factor of ten and still enjoy a 70-percent [[gross margin]].<ref>{{cite av media |url=https://www.youtube.com/watch?v=3aXNWGwis4w |title=SpaceX and Daring to Think Big – Steve Jurvetson |date=January 28, 2015 |publisher=YouTube}}</ref> Ultimately, Musk ended up founding SpaceX with the long-term goal of creating a "true spacefaring civilization."<ref>{{cite web |author=Elon Musk |title=SpaceX wins NASA competition to replace Space Shuttle |url=http://www.spacex.com/updates_archive.php?page=0606-1206#COTS_update |date=September 8, 2006 |publisher=SpaceX}}</ref>
[[File:Elon Musk gives tour for President Barack Obama.jpg|360px|thumbnail|Musk and President [[Barack Obama]] at the Falcon 9 launch site in 2010]]
With {{US$|100{{nbsp}}million}} of his early fortune,<ref>{{cite news |url=https://www.nytimes.com/2006/02/05/business/yourmoney/05rocket.html |title=A Bold Plan to Go Where Men Have Gone Before |date=February 5, 2006 |first=Leslie |last=Wayne |work=The New York Times |accessdate=February 16, 2015}}</ref> Musk founded Space Exploration Technologies, or [[SpaceX]], in May 2002.<ref>{{citation |title=California Business Search (C2414622 - Space Exploration Technologies Corp) |url=https://businesssearch.sos.ca.gov/}}</ref> Musk is [[chief executive officer]] (CEO) and [[chief technology officer]] (CTO) of the [[Hawthorne, California]]-based company. SpaceX develops and manufactures space [[launch vehicle]]s with a focus on advancing the state of rocket technology. The company's first two launch vehicles are the [[Falcon 1]] and [[Falcon 9]] rockets (a nod to Star Wars' ''[[Millennium Falcon]]''), and its first spacecraft is the [[SpaceX Dragon|Dragon]] (a nod to ''[[Puff the Magic Dragon (film)|Puff the Magic Dragon]]'').<ref>{{Citation |url=http://www.spacex.com |title=SpaceX}}</ref> In seven years, SpaceX designed the family of Falcon launch vehicles and the Dragon multipurpose spacecraft. In September 2008, SpaceX's Falcon 1 rocket became the first privately funded liquid-fueled vehicle to put a satellite into Earth orbit.<ref name="vance"/> On May 25, 2012, the SpaceX Dragon vehicle berthed [[Dragon C2+|with the ISS]], making history as the first commercial company to launch and [[Berthing (spacecraft)|berth]] a vehicle to the [[International Space Station]].<ref>{{cite news |last=Harwood |first=William |title=SpaceX Dragon returns to Earth, ends historic trip |url=http://www.cbsnews.com/8301-205_162-57444590/spacex-dragon-returns-to-earth-ends-historic-trip/?tag=cbsnewsSectionContent.10 |publisher=CBS News |accessdate=August 3, 2013 |date=May 31, 2012}}</ref>
In 2006, SpaceX was awarded a contract from NASA to continue the development and test of the SpaceX Falcon 9 [[launch vehicle]] and [[Dragon spacecraft]] in order to transport cargo to the International Space Station,<ref name="NASA COTS-2006">[http://www.nasa.gov/offices/c3po/about/cots_demo_competition.html COTS 2006 Demo Competition]. NASA (accessed August 26, 2014); and announcement [http://www.nasa.gov/pdf/225439main_COTS%20Final%20Announcement%20%28Amend%201,%20%202-17-06%29.pdf "Commercial Orbital Transportation Services Demonstrations"]. January 18, 2006 (accessed August 26, 2014)</ref>{{failed verification|date=October 2015}}<!-- this doc, describing the NASA contract competition, does not even mention SpaceX, Space Exploration Technologies, nor Musk --> followed by a {{US$|1.6 billion}} NASA [[Commercial Resupply Services]] program contract on December 23, 2008, for 12 flights of its Falcon 9 rocket and Dragon spacecraft to the Space Station, replacing the [[Federal government of the United States|US]] [[Space Shuttle]] after it retired in 2011.<ref>{{cite web |url=http://www.nasa.gov/home/hqnews/2008/dec/HQ_C08-069_ISS_Resupply.html |title=NASA Awards Space Station Commercial Resupply Services Contracts |website=nasa.gov |date=December 23, 2008|access-date=June 30, 2016 |publisher=NASA}}</ref> Astronaut transport to the ISS is currently handled solely by the [[Soyuz spacecraft|Soyuz]], but SpaceX is one of two companies awarded a contract by NASA as part of the [[Commercial Crew Development]] program, which is intended to develop a US astronaut transport capability by 2018.<ref>{{Cite web |url=https://www.npr.org/sections/thetwo-way/2014/09/16/349078981/boeing-and-spacex-win-6-8-billion-in-nasa-contracts |title=Boeing And SpaceX Win Billion in NASA Contracts |website=NPR.org |publisher=National Public Radio|access-date=June 30, 2016}}</ref>
Musk believed that the key to making space travel affordable is to make rockets reusable, Though most experts in the space industry did not believe that reusable rockets were possible or feasible.<ref name=":6" /> On December 22, 2015, SpaceX successfully landed the first stage of its Falcon rocket back at the [[launch pad]]. This was the first time in history such a feat had been achieved by an orbital rocket and is a significant step towards rocket reusability lowering the costs of access to space.<ref>{{Cite web |url=https://www.bbc.co.uk/news/science-environment-35157782 |title=SpaceX rocket in historic upright landing |website=BBC News|access-date=June 30, 2016}}</ref> This first stage recovery was replicated several times in 2016 by landing on an [[autonomous spaceport drone ship]], an ocean-based recovery platform,<ref>{{Cite web |url=https://www.theverge.com/2016/5/27/11787532/spacex-falcon-9-rocket-landing-success-sea-drone-ship |title=SpaceX successfully lands a Falcon 9 rocket at sea for the third time |last=O'Kane |first=Sean |date=May 27, 2016 |website=The Verge |access-date=June 30, 2016}}</ref> and by the end of 2017, SpaceX had landed and recovered the first stage on 16 missions in a row where a landing and recovery were attempted, including all 14 attempts in 2017.  20 out of 42 first stage Falcon 9 boosters have been recovered overall since the Falcon 9 maiden flight in 2010.<ref name="sn20171222">{{cite news |last=Henry|first=Caleb |url=http://spacenews.com/spacex-concludes-2017-with-fourth-iridium-next-launch/ |title=SpaceX concludes 2017 with fourth Iridium Next launch |work=[[SpaceNews]] |date=December 22, 2017 |accessdate=December 25, 2017 }}</ref>
In the most recent full year—2017—SpaceX launched 18 successful Falcon 9 flights, more than doubling their highest previous year of 8.<ref name="sdc20171222">{{cite news |url=https://www.space.com/39184-spacex-used-rocket-satellite-launch-landing.html |title=Used SpaceX Rocket Launches 10 Communications Satellites Once Again |author=Mike Wall |publisher=[[Space.com]] |date=December 22, 2017 |access-date=December 25, 2017 }}</ref>
On February 6, 2018, SpaceX successfully launched the [[Falcon Heavy]], the fourth-highest capacity rocket ever built (after [[Saturn V]], [[Energia]] and [[N1 (rocket)|N1]]) and the most powerful rocket in operation as of 2018. The [[Falcon Heavy Test Flight|inaugural mission]] carried a [[Elon Musk's Tesla Roadster|Tesla Roadster]] belonging to Musk as a [[boilerplate (spaceflight)|dummy payload]].<ref>{{cite news|last1=Gebhardt|first1=Chris|title=Falcon Heavy success paves the way for open access to space beyond Earth – NASASpaceFlight.com|url=https://www.nasaspaceflight.com/2018/02/falcon-heavy-success-paves-space-beyond-earth/|accessdate=February 19, 2018|work=NASASpaceFlight.com|date=February 9, 2018}}</ref>
SpaceX is both the largest private producer of rocket engines in the world, and holder of the record for highest [[thrust-to-weight ratio]] for a rocket engine (the [[Merlin 1D]]).<ref>{{cite web |url=http://www.airspacemag.com/space/is-spacex-changing-the-rocket-equation-132285884/?page=2 |title=Is SpaceX Changing the Rocket Equation? |publisher=airspacemag.com |accessdate=May 30, 2015}}</ref><ref>{{Cite web |url=http://spaceflightnow.com/2015/02/22/100th-merlin-1d-engine-flies-on-falcon-9-rocket/ |title=100th Merlin 1D engine flies on Falcon 9 rocket – Spaceflight Now |last=Clark |first=Stephen|access-date=June 30, 2016}}</ref> SpaceX has produced more than 100 operational Merlin 1D engines. Each Merlin 1D engine can vertically lift the weight of 40 average family cars. In combination, the 9 Merlin engines in the Falcon 9 first stage produce anywhere from 5.8 to 6.7&nbsp;MN (1.3 to 1.5&nbsp;million pounds) of thrust, depending on [[altitude]].<ref>{{cite web |url=http://www.spacex.com/news/2014/10/16/spacex-completes-100th-merlin-1d-engine |title=SpaceX completes 100th Merlin 1D Engine |work=SpaceX |accessdate=April 19, 2015}}</ref>
Musk was influenced by [[Isaac Asimov]]'s [[Foundation series|''Foundation'' series]]<ref>{{cite news |url=https://www.theguardian.com/technology/2013/jul/17/elon-musk-mission-mars-spacex |work=The Guardian |date=July 17, 2013 |accessdate=July 23, 2013 |title=Elon Musk's mission to Mars |first=Roy |last=Carroll |location=London, UK}}</ref> and views space exploration as an important step in preserving and expanding the consciousness of human life.<ref name="esquire">{{cite web |date=October 1, 2008 |title=75 most influential people: Elon Musk |publisher=Esquire |url=http://www.esquire.com/features/75-most-influential/elon-musk-1008}}</ref> Musk said that multiplanetary life may serve as a hedge against threats to the survival of the human species.
<blockquote>An asteroid or a super volcano could destroy us, and we face risks the dinosaurs never saw: an engineered virus, inadvertent creation of a [[micro black hole]], catastrophic global warming or some as-yet-unknown technology could spell the end of us. Humankind evolved over millions of years, but in the last sixty years atomic weaponry created the potential to extinguish ourselves. Sooner or later, we must expand life beyond this green and blue ball—or go extinct.</blockquote>
Musk's goal is to reduce the cost of [[human spaceflight]] by a factor of 10.<ref>{{cite web |title=Space Exploration Technologies Corporation Press Release |url=http://www.spacex.com/press.php?page=20100616 |publisher=SpaceX |accessdate=December 15, 2012}}</ref> In a 2011 interview, he said he hopes to send humans to Mars' surface within 10–20 years.<ref>{{cite news |title=Elon Musk: I'll Put a Man on Mars in 10 Years |url=http://www.marketwatch.com/video/asset/elon-musk-ill-put-a-man-on-mars-in-10-years-2011-04-22/CCF1FC62-BB0D-4561-938C-DF0DEFAD15BA#!CCF1FC62-BB0D-4561-938C-DF0DEFAD15BA |newspaper=Market Watch |date=April 22, 2011 |location=New York |accessdate=December 1, 2011 |archiveurl=https://www.webcitation.org/63bvaGo3E?url=http://www.marketwatch.com/video/asset/elon-musk-ill-put-a-man-on-mars-in-10-years-2011-04-22/CCF1FC62-BB0D-4561-938C-DF0DEFAD15BA |archivedate=December 1, 2011 |deadurl=yes |df=mdy}}</ref> In [[Ashlee Vance]]'s [[Elon Musk: Tesla, SpaceX, and the Quest for a Fantastic Future|biography]], Musk stated that he wants to establish a Mars colony by 2040, with a population of 80,000.<ref name="Rue89-2015-05-28"/> Musk stated that, since Mars' atmosphere lacks oxygen, all transportation would have to be electric (electric cars, electric trains, Hyperloop, electric aircraft).<ref>{{cite av media |url=https://www.youtube.com/watch?v=ab2VVp1GfmA |title=Elon Musk speaks at the Hyperloop Pod Award Ceremony (2016.1.30) |date=January 31, 2016 |accessdate=February 21, 2016 |via=YouTube}}</ref>  Musk stated in June 2016 that the first unmanned flight of the larger [[Mars Colonial Transporter]] (MCT) spacecraft is aimed for departure to the red planet in 2022, to be followed by the first manned MCT Mars flight departing in 2024.<ref name="wpost">{{cite news |title=Elon Musk provides new details on his 'mind blowing' mission to Mars |url=https://www.washingtonpost.com/news/the-switch/wp/2016/06/10/Elon-musk-provides-new-details-on-his-mind-blowing-mission-to-mars/ |newspaper=[[Washington Post]] |date=June 13, 2016 |first=Christian |last=Davenport |accessdate=June 14, 2016}}</ref> In September 2016, Musk revealed details of his [[SpaceX Mars transportation infrastructure|architecture to explore and colonize Mars]].<ref name="NYT-20160927">{{cite news |last=Chang |first=Kenneth |title=Elon Musk's Plan: Get Humans to Mars, and Beyond |url=https://www.nytimes.com/2016/09/28/science/elon-musk-spacex-mars-exploration.html |date=September 27, 2016 |work=[[New York Times]] |accessdate=September 27, 2016}}</ref> By 2016, Musk's private trust holds 54%<!--b--> of SpaceX stock, equivalent to 78% of voting shares.<ref>{{cite web |url=https://electrek.co/2016/11/16/elon-musk-stake-spacex-tesla-shares/ |title=Elon Musk's stake in SpaceX is actually worth more than his Tesla shares |first=Fred |last=Lambert |date=November 16, 2016 |work=Electrek |accessdate=November 17, 2016}}</ref>
In late 2017, SpaceX unveiled the design for its next-generation launch vehicle and spacecraft system—[[BFR (rocket)|BFR]]—that would support all SpaceX [[launch service provider]] capabilities with a single set of very large vehicles: Earth-orbit, [[Cislunar|Lunar-orbit]], interplanetary missions, and even [[Human spaceflight#Passenger travel in spacecraft|intercontinental passenger transport]] on Earth, and totally replace the Falcon 9, Falcon Heavy and Dragon vehicles in the 2020s. The BFR will have a {{convert|9|m|sp=us|adj=on}} core diameter.  Significant development on the vehicles began in 2017, while the new rocket engine development began in 2012.<ref name="musk20170929">{{cite AV media |url=https://www.youtube.com/watch?v=tdUX3ypDVwI |people=Elon Musk |title=Becoming a Multiplanet Species |date=September 29, 2017 |medium=video |location=68th annual meeting of the International Astronautical Congress in Adelaide, Australia |publisher=SpaceX |via=YouTube |access-date=December 31, 2017}}</ref><ref name="Dent20170929">{{cite news |title=Elon Musk's Mars dream hinges on a giant new rocket |first=Steve|last=Dent |date=September 29, 2017 |url=https://www.engadget.com/2017/09/29/space-x-mars-bfr-elon-musk/ |work=Engadget |accessdate=January 1, 2018}}</ref>
{{Main|Tesla, Inc.}}
Tesla, Inc. (originally Tesla Motors) was incorporated in July 2003 by [[Martin Eberhard]] and [[Marc Tarpenning]], who financed the company until the [[Series A round]] of funding.<ref>{{cite web |url=https://techcrunch.com/gallery/a-brief-history-of-tesla |title=A Brief History of Tesla |date=October 8, 2014 |accessdate=June 11, 2015 |website=TechCrunch |publisher=TechCrunch.com |last=Burns |first=Matt}}</ref>
Both men played active roles in the company's early development prior to Elon Musk's involvement.<ref name="From Archive.org-7620615">{{cite web |url=http://www.marketbusinessnews.com/tesla-motors/12064 |title=Tesla Motors Inc.—Company Information |publisher=Market Business News |date=February 12, 2014 |accessdate=April 16, 2014 |archiveurl=https://web.archive.org/web/20140212093533/http://www.marketbusinessnews.com/tesla-motors/12064 |archivedate=February 12, 2014 |deadurl=yes |first=Joseph |last=Nordqvist}}</ref> Musk led the Series A round of investment in February 2004, joining Tesla's board of directors as its chairman.<ref name="MasterPlan">{{cite web |last=Musk |first=Elon |url=http://www.teslamotors.com/blog/secret-tesla-motors-master-plan-just-between-you-and-me |title=The Secret Tesla Motors Master Plan (just between you and me) No. 124 |publisher=Tesla Motors |date=August 2, 2006 |accessdate=October 3, 2010 |archiveurl=https://web.archive.org/web/20100802142703/http://www.teslamotors.com/blog/secret-tesla-motors-master-plan-just-between-you-and-me|archive-date=August 2, 2010 |deadurl=no}} {{Self-published source|inline|date=May 2015}}</ref> Musk took an active role within the company and oversaw Roadster product design at a detailed level, but was not deeply involved in day-to-day business operations.<ref>{{cite web |last=Musk |first=Elon |url=http://www.teslamotors.com/about/executives/elonmusk |title=CEO Elon Musk |publisher=Tesla Motors |accessdate=October 20, 2010}}</ref>
Following the [[Financial crisis of 2007–2008|financial crisis in 2008]] and after a series of escalating conflicts in 2007, Eberhard was ousted from the firm. <ref name=":6">{{Cite book|title=Quirky: The remarkable story of the traits, foibles, and genius of breakthrough innovators who changed the world|last=Schilling|first=Melissa|publisher=PublicAffairs|year=2018|isbn=|location=|pages=}}</ref><ref>{{cite news |first=Chris |last=Morrison |date=October 15, 2008 |url=https://www.nytimes.com/external/venturebeat/2008/10/15/15venturebeat-elon-musk-steps-in-as-ceo-at-tesla-lays-off-99182.html |title=Musk steps in as CEO |work=The New York Times}}</ref> Musk assumed leadership of the company as CEO and product architect, positions he still holds today. Tesla Motors first built an electric sports car, the [[Tesla Roadster (2008)|Tesla Roadster]] in 2008, with sales of about 2,500 vehicles to 31 countries. Tesla began delivery of its four-door [[Tesla Model S|Model&nbsp;S]] sedan on June 22, 2012. It unveiled its third product, the [[Tesla Model X|Model X]], aimed at the [[SUV]]/[[minivan]] market, on February 9, 2012; however, the Model X launch was delayed until September 2015.<ref>{{cite web |url=https://www.theguardian.com/business/2015/sep/30/tesla-model-x-electric-car-launch-falcon-wings-suv |title=Tesla's Model X electric car spreads falcon wings at US launch |author=Graham Ruddick |work=the Guardian |accessdate=November 4, 2015}}</ref><ref>{{cite web |url=http://fortune.com/2015/03/19/tesla-model-x |title=Tesla Model X: Not a model launch |work=Fortune |accessdate=November 4, 2015}}</ref><ref>{{cite web |date=October 29, 2012 |url=http://www.teslamotors.com/modelx |title=Model X |publisher=Tesla Motors}}</ref> In addition to its own cars, Tesla sells electric [[powertrain]] systems to [[Daimler AG|Daimler]] for the [[Smart EV]], [[Mercedes B-Class|Mercedes B-Class Electric Drive]] and [[Mercedes A-Class E-Cell|Mercedes A Class]], and to [[Toyota]] for the [[RAV4 EV]]. Musk was able to bring in both companies as long-term investors in Tesla.<ref>{{Cite news |url=https://www.forbes.com/sites/joannmuller/2013/06/01/what-do-toyota-and-mercedes-see-in-tesla-a-bit-of-themselves |title=What Do Toyota And Mercedes See in Tesla? A Bit of Themselves |author=Joann Muller |work=Forbes.com |date=June 1, 2013}}</ref>
<gallery mode="packed" heights="170px">
File:FANUC Robot Assembly Demo.jpg|Musk observing an assembly demo at the reopening of the [[NUMMI]] plant, now known as the [[Tesla Factory]] ([[Fremont, California]]) in 2010
File:Elon Musk, Tesla Factory, Fremont (CA, USA) (8765031426).jpg|Musk standing in front of a Tesla Model S in 2011
File:Can I sit on the car?.jpg|Musk and Senator [[Dianne Feinstein]] next to a [[Tesla Model S]] (2010)
Musk has favored building a sub-{{US$|30,000}} compact Tesla model and building and selling electric vehicle powertrain components so that other automakers can produce electric vehicles at affordable prices without having to develop the products in-house; this led to the [[Tesla Model 3|Model 3]] that is planned to have a base price of {{US$|35,000}}.<ref>{{cite web |first=Elon |last=Musk |title=The Secret Tesla Motors Master Plan (just between you and me) |date=August 2, 2006 |url=http://www.teslamotors.com/blog2/?p=8 |publisher=Tesla Motors}}</ref> Several mainstream publications have compared him with [[Henry Ford]] for his work on advanced vehicle powertrains.<ref name="thestar">{{cite news |title=Tesla CEO following in Henry Ford's tracks |date=October 12, 2009 |first=Tyler |last=Hamilton |work=[[Toronto Star]] |url=https://www.thestar.com/iphone/article/Business/708847 |deadurl=yes |archiveurl=https://web.archive.org/web/20091017115314/http://www.thestar.com/iphone/article/Business/708847 |archivedate=October 17, 2009}}</ref>
In a May 2013 interview with [[All Things Digital]], Musk said that to overcome the range limitations of electric cars, Tesla is "dramatically accelerating" its network of supercharger stations, tripling the number on the East and West coasts of the U.S. that June, with plans for more expansion across [[North America]], including Canada, throughout the year.<ref>{{Citation |first=Jason |last=Del Ray |url=http://allthingsd.com/20130529/musk-youll-be-able-to-drive-your-tesla-cross-country-by-years-end-with-supercharger-expansion |title=Musk: You'll Be Able to Drive Your Tesla Cross-Country by Year's End With Supercharger Expansion |date=May 29, 2013 |publisher=[[All Things D]]}}</ref> As of January 29, 2016, Musk owns about 28.9&nbsp;million Tesla shares, which equates to about 22% of the company.<ref>{{cite web |url=http://www.marketwatch.com/story/elon-musk-buys-tesla-shares-cheap-pays-hefty-tax-bill-with-own-cash-2016-01-29 |title=Elon Musk exercises Tesla options, pays million tax bill with own cash |author1=Claudia Assis |author2=Jeremy C. Owens |work=MarketWatch |accessdate=February 21, 2016}}</ref><ref>{{cite web |url=https://www.theverge.com/2016/1/29/10873576/elon-musk-100-million-option-exercise-stock-tesla |title=Elon Musk bought million more worth of Tesla this week |author=Chris Ziegler |date=January 29, 2016 |publisher=Vox Media |work=The Verge |accessdate=February 21, 2016}}</ref>
As of 2014, Musk's annual salary is [[One dollar salary|one dollar]], similar to that of [[Steve Jobs]] and other CEOs; the remainder of his compensation is in the form of stock and performance-based bonuses.<ref name="salary">{{cite news |title=Tesla's Elon Musk worked for free last year |url=http://fortune.com/2015/04/23/elon-musk-tesla-salary |work=Fortune |accessdate=November 4, 2015}}</ref><ref>{{cite news |title=Musk get {{US$|4.3&nbsp;million}} of stock options for Model X work|url=https://www.bloomberg.com/news/2013-08-09/musk-gets-4-3-million-of-stock-options-for-model-x-work.html|accessdate=January 15, 2014|work=Bloomberg L.P.|first=Megan|last=Durisin|date=August 10, 2013}}</ref>
In 2014, Musk announced that Tesla would allow its technology patents to be used by anyone in [[Good faith (law)|good faith]] in a bid to entice automobile manufacturers to speed up development of electric cars. "The unfortunate reality is electric car programs (or programs for any vehicle that doesn't burn [[hydrocarbons]]) at the major manufacturers are small to non-existent, constituting an average of far less than 1% of their total vehicle sales," Musk said.<ref>{{cite web |url=http://www.teslamotors.com/blog/all-our-patent-are-belong-you |title=All Our Patent Are Belong To You |publisher=Tesla Motors |accessdate=November 4, 2015}}</ref>
In February 2016, Musk announced that he had acquired the Tesla.com [[domain name]] from Stu Grossman, who had owned it since 1992, and changed Tesla's homepage to that domain.<ref>{{cite web |author=Dana Hull |url=https://www.bloomberg.com/news/articles/2016-02-19/tesla-s-musk-gets-tesla-com-domain-name-after-waiting-a-decade |title=Musk Gets Tesla.com Domain Name After Waiting a Decade |publisher=Bloomberg L.P. |date=February 19, 2016 |accessdate=March 22, 2016}}</ref>
In January 2018, Musk was granted a $2.6 billion award by the company, awarding him with 20.3 million shares and could raise Tesla's market value to $650 billion. Majority shareholder approval is pending.<ref name=":5">{{Cite news|url=https://www.bloomberg.com/news/articles/2018-03-05/tesla-s-2-6-billion-award-to-musk-too-costly-glass-lewis-says|title=Tesla's $2.6 Billion Musk Award Too Costly, Glass Lewis Says|date=March 5, 2018|work=Bloomberg.com|access-date=March 6, 2018|language=en}}</ref> The grant was also meant to end speculation about Musk's potential departure from Tesla to devote more time to his other business ventures.<ref>{{Cite news|url=https://www.bloomberg.com/news/articles/2018-01-23/tesla-tops-ups-all-in-bet-on-musk-with-2-6-billion-option-award|title=Musk's New Pay Deal Could Make Him the World's Richest Man—If Tesla Succeeds|date=January 23, 2018|work=Bloomberg.com|access-date=March 6, 2018|language=en}}</ref> A report by advisory firm Glass Lewis & Co. to clients argued against granting the award.<ref name=":5" /> Despite what the ''[[New York Post]]'' described as an "astronomical deal" in pay, Musk accepted $750 million in public funds from New York Governor [[Andrew Cuomo]] as part of the [[Buffalo Billion]] project, a plan to invest money to help the economy of the Buffalo, New York area. The money was used to build a factory and infrastructure for solar panel maker [[SolarCity]], which Tesla acquired. As of March 2018, the plant employed "just a few hundred workers and its future remains uncertain." (The Buffalo area actually lost nearly 5,000 jobs between December 2016 and December 2017).<ref>{{Cite news|url=https://nypost.com/2018/03/24/new-york-taxpayers-gift-to-elon-musk|title=New York taxpayers’ gift to Elon Musk|date=March 25, 2018|work=New York Post|access-date=April 10, 2018|language=en-US}}</ref>
Musk provided the initial concept and financial capital for [[SolarCity]], which was then co-founded in 2006 by his cousins [[Lyndon Rive|Lyndon and Peter Rive]].<ref name="Management Team">{{cite web |url=http://www.solarcity.com/media-center/management-team.aspx |publisher=SolarCity |title=Management Team}}</ref><ref name="Kanellos">{{cite web |first=Michael |last=Kanellos |date=February 15, 2008 |title=Newsmaker: Elon Musk on rockets, sports cars, and solar power |url=http://news.cnet.com/Elon-Musk-on-rockets,-sports-cars,-and-solar-power---page-2/2008-11389_3-6230661-2.html |publisher=CNET}}</ref> By 2013, SolarCity was the second largest provider of solar power systems in the United States.<ref>{{Cite news |url=http://www.solarpowerworldonline.com/top-250-solar-contractors |title=2013 Top 250 Solar Contractors |work=Solar Power World |date=September 13, 2013}}</ref>  SolarCity was acquired by Tesla, Inc. in 2016 and is currently a wholly owned subsidiary of Tesla.<ref name="Shareholder Approval">{{cite web|title= Tesla’s Acquisition of SolarCity Receives Shareholder Approval|url=https://www.tesla.com/en_GB/blog/teslas-acquisition-of-solarcity-receives-shareholder-approval |accessdate=November 17, 2016}}</ref><ref>{{cite web|url= https://www.forbes.com/sites/alanohnsman/2016/11/17/early-christmas-present-for-elon-musk-as-shareholders-bless-tesla-solarcity-merger/ |title=Early Christmas Present For Elon Musk As Shareholders Bless Tesla-SolarCity Merger|date=November 17, 2016|work=Forbes|accessdate=November 22, 2016}}</ref><ref name="closing">{{cite web|url=http://ir.tesla.com/secfiling.cfm?filingid=1193125-16-773705&CIK=1318605|title=Tesla - Current Report|website=ir.tesla.com}}</ref>
The underlying motivation for funding both SolarCity and Tesla was to help combat global warming.<ref>{{cite video |url=https://www.youtube.com/watch?v=hOl_1S10jTk |title=The unveiling of the Tesla Motors Electric Car |publisher=Autoblog |accessdate=July 26, 2006}}</ref> In 2012, Musk announced that SolarCity and Tesla are collaborating to use electric vehicle batteries to smooth the impact of rooftop solar on the power grid, with the program going live in 2013.<ref name="KQED-SolarCity">{{cite web |last=Diggelen |first=Alison van |title=Tesla and SolarCity Collaborate on Clean Energy Storage |url=http://blogs.kqed.org/climatewatch/2012/04/24/tesla-and-solarcity-collaborate-on-clean-energy-storage |publisher=KQED |accessdate=June 25, 2012}}</ref>
On June 17, 2014, Musk committed to building a SolarCity advanced production facility in Buffalo, New York, that would triple the size of the largest solar plant in the United States. Musk stated the plant will be "one of the single largest solar panel production plants in the world," and it will be followed by one or more even bigger facilities in subsequent years.<ref>{{Cite news |url=http://money.cnn.com/2014/06/17/news/companies/solarcity-silevo |title=Elon Musk's sunny plans for Buffalo |author=Aaron Smith |publisher=[[CNNMoney]] |date=June 17, 2014}}</ref>{{update after|2016|3|15}}<!-- so what has happened with this plant in the past 20 months? is it built? or still in the planning stages? or ??? -->
{{Main|Hyperloop|Hyperloop pod competition}}
On August 12, 2013, Musk unveiled a concept for a high-speed transportation system incorporating reduced-pressure tubes in which pressurized capsules ride on an [[Air bearing|air cushion]] driven by [[linear induction motor]]s and [[air compressor]]s.<ref name="gm20130822">{{cite web |url=http://www.gizmag.com/hyperloop-musk-analysis/28672 |title=Beyond the hype of Hyperloop: An analysis of Elon Musk's proposed transit system |work=Gizmag.com |date=August 22, 2013 |accessdate=August 23, 2013}}</ref> The mechanism for releasing the concept was an alpha-design document that, in addition to scoping out the technology, outlined a notional route where such a transport system might be built: between the [[Greater Los Angeles Area]] and the [[San Francisco Bay Area]].<ref>{{cite web |url=http://www.businessweek.com/articles/2013-08-12/revealed-elon-musk-explains-the-hyperloop |title=Revealed: Elon Musk Explains the Hyperloop, the Solar-Powered High-Speed Future of Inter-City Transportation |author=[[Ashlee Vance]] |work=[[Bloomberg BusinessWeek]] |accessdate=April 27, 2016}}</ref>
After earlier envisioning Hyperloop, Musk assigned a dozen engineers from [[Tesla Inc.|Tesla]] and [[SpaceX]] who worked for nine months, establishing the conceptual foundations and creating the designs for the transportation system.<ref>{{cite web |url=https://www.forbes.com/sites/hannahelliott/2013/08/12/latest-update-elon-musk-will-start-the-hyperloop-himself/#5143db7047a8 |title=Hyperloop Update: Elon Musk Will Start Developing It Himself |publisher=Forbes.com |accessdate=March 22, 2016}}</ref><ref>{{cite web |url=http://www.gizmag.com/musk-developing-hyperloop-demonstrator/28684/ |title=Musk announces plans to build Hyperloop demonstrator |publisher=gizmag.com |accessdate=November 4, 2015}}</ref> An early design for the system was then published in a [[whitepaper]] posted to the Tesla and SpaceX blogs.<ref name="AlphaSpaceX">{{cite web |url=http://www.spacex.com/sites/spacex/files/hyperloop_alpha-20130812.pdf |title=Hyperloop Alpha |first=Elon |last=Musk |work=SpaceX |date=August 12, 2013 |accessdate=August 13, 2013}}</ref><ref name="AlphaTesla">{{cite web |url=http://www.teslamotors.com/blog/hyperloop |title=Hyperloop |first=Elon |last=Musk |work=Tesla |date=August 12, 2013 |accessdate=August 13, 2013}}</ref><ref>{{cite web |url=http://abcnews.go.com/Technology/hyperloop-designed-quick-convenient-commute/story?id=19936169 |title=Hyperloop Designed for Quick, Convenient Commute |publisher=ABC News |date=March 9, 2013 |accessdate=August 15, 2013}}</ref> Musk's proposal, if technologically feasible at the costs he has cited, would make Hyperloop travel cheaper than any other [[mode of transport]] for such long distances. The alpha design was proposed to use a partial vacuum to reduce [[aerodynamic drag]], which it is theorized would allow for high-speed travel with relatively low power, with certain other features like air-bearing skis and an inlet compressor to reduce freestream flow. The document of alpha design estimated the total cost of an LA-to-SF Hyperloop system at {{US$|6&nbsp;billion}}, but this amount is speculative.<!-- this last phrase seems redundant --><ref>{{cite web |title=Hyperloop |publisher=SpaceX |url=http://www.spacex.com/hyperloop |accessdate=August 13, 2013}}</ref>
In June 2015, Musk announced a [[incentive prize competition|design competition]] for students and others to build Hyperloop pods to operate on a SpaceX-sponsored mile-long track in a 2015–2017 [[Hyperloop pod competition]]. The track was used in January 2017, and Musk also started building a tunnel.<ref>{{Cite web |url=http://www.dailybulletin.com/science/20170129/hyperloop-competition-brings-new-mass-transit-technology-to-life-in-hawthorne |title=Hyperloop competition brings new mass-transit technology to life in Hawthorne |last=Mazza |first=Sandy |date=January 29, 2017 |publisher=Daily Bulletin}}</ref>
[[Hyperloop One]], a company unaffiliated with Musk, had announced that it had done its first successful test run on its DevLoop track in Nevada on July 13, 2017. It was on May 12, 2017 at 12:02&nbsp;a.m. and had lasted 5.3 seconds, reaching a top speed of 70&nbsp;mph.<ref>{{Cite web |url=https://www.theverge.com/2017/7/14/15960686/hyperloop-one-test-success-interview-giegel-pishevar |title=Talking to Hyperloop One about its big 'Kitty Hawk' moment – and what comes next |last=Hawkins |first=Andrew J. |date=July 14, 2017 |website=The Verge|access-date=July 14, 2017}}</ref>
On July 20, 2017, Elon Musk announced that he had gotten "verbal government approval" to build a hyperloop from [[New York City]] to [[Washington, D.C.]], stopping in both [[Philadelphia]] and [[Baltimore]].<ref>{{Cite news |url=https://www.npr.org/sections/thetwo-way/2017/07/20/538328487/elon-musk-says-he-has-verbal-ok-to-build-n-y-d-c-hyperloop |title=Elon Musk Says He Has 'Verbal' OK To Build N.Y.-D.C. Hyperloop |work=NPR.org|access-date=July 25, 2017 |language=en}}</ref> However, the [[New York City Transit Authority]], [[SEPTA|Southeastern Pennsylvania Transportation Authority]], [[Washington Metropolitan Area Transit Authority]], [[Maryland Transit Administration]], [[United States Department of Homeland Security]], as well as the mayors of New York, Philadelphia, Baltimore, and Washington D.C. stated that they are unaware of any such agreement.<ref>{{Cite news |url=https://jalopnik.com/heres-a-running-list-of-comments-from-public-agencies-o-1797094244 |title=Here's A Running List of Comments From Public Agencies on Elon Musk's 'Verbal Govt Approval' To Build A Hyperloop From NYC To D.C. |last=Felton |first=Ryan |date=July 20, 2017 |work=Jalopnik|access-date=July 27, 2017 |language=en-US}}</ref>
In December 2015, Musk announced the creation of [[OpenAI]], a not-for-profit artificial intelligence (AI) research company. OpenAI aims to develop [[artificial general intelligence]] in a way that is safe and beneficial to humanity.<ref name="NYT_AI">{{cite news |url=https://www.nytimes.com/2015/12/12/science/artificial-intelligence-research-center-is-founded-by-silicon-valley-investors.html |title=Artificial-Intelligence Research Center Is Founded by Silicon Valley Investors |first1=John |last1=Markoff |date=December 11, 2015 |publisher=''[[The New York Times]]'' |accessdate=December 15, 2015}}</ref>
By making AI available to everyone, OpenAI wants to "counteract large corporations who may gain too much power by owning super-intelligence systems devoted to profits, as well as governments which may use AI to gain power and even oppress their citizenry."<ref name="levy20151215">{{cite web |url=https://medium.com/backchannel/how-elon-musk-and-y-combinator-plan-to-stop-computers-from-taking-over-17e0e27dd02a |title=How Elon Musk and Y Combinator Plan to Stop Computers From Taking Over |first1=Steven |last1=Levy |date=December 11, 2015 |publisher=[[Medium (publishing platform)|Medium]]/''[[Backchannel (blog)|Backchannel]]'' |accessdate=December 15, 2015}}</ref> Musk has stated he wants to counteract the concentration of power.<ref name=rollingstone20171115/> In 2018 Musk left the OpenAI board to avoid "potential future conflict" with his role as CEO of Tesla as Tesla increasingly becomes involved in AI.<ref>{{cite news|title=Elon Musk, who has sounded the alarm on AI, leaves the organization he co-founded to make it safer|url=https://www.cnbc.com/2018/02/21/elon-musk-is-leaving-the-board-of-openai.html|accessdate=February 28, 2018|work=CNBC|date=February 21, 2018}}</ref>
In 2016, Musk co-founded Neuralink, a [[neurotechnology]] startup company to integrate the human brain with artificial intelligence. The company is centered on creating devices that can be implanted in the human brain, with the eventual purpose of helping human beings merge with software and keep pace with advancements in artificial intelligence. These enhancements could improve memory or allow more direct interfacing with computing devices.<ref>{{Cite web |url=https://www.theverge.com/2017/3/27/15077864/elon-musk-neuralink-brain-computer-interface-ai-cyborgs |title=Elon Musk launches Neuralink, a venture to merge the human brain with AI |date=March 27, 2017 |website=The Verge|access-date=April 10, 2017}}</ref>
Musk sees Neuralink and OpenAI as related: "OpenAI is a nonprofit dedicated to minimizing the dangers of artificial intelligence, while Neuralink is working on ways to implant technology into our brains to create mind-computer interfaces."<ref name=rollingstone20171115/>
===The Boring Company===
{{Main|The Boring Company}}
On December 17, 2016, while stuck in traffic, Musk tweeted "Am going to build a tunnel boring machine and just start digging..." The company was named 'The Boring Company'.<ref>{{Cite web |url=https://www.theverge.com/2017/1/25/14391410/elon-musk-tunnels-traffic-tesla-spacex-boring-company |title=Elon Musk: "Without tunnels, we will all be in traffic hell forever" |last=Golson |first=Jordan |date=January 25, 2017 |website=The Verge|access-date=January 29, 2017}}</ref> On January 21, 2017, Musk tweeted "Exciting progress on the tunnel front. Plan to start digging in a month or so."<ref>{{Cite web |url=http://fortune.com/2017/01/25/elon-musk-tesla-boring-company-traffic-solution/ |title=Elon Musk Will Begin Digging His "Boring Company" Tunnel in About A Month |website=Fortune|access-date=January 29, 2017}}</ref> The first tunnel will start on the SpaceX campus,<ref>{{Cite news |url=https://www.forbes.com/sites/bridaineparnell/2017/01/26/elon-musk-teases-traffic-busting-tunneling-firm-the-boring-co/2/#ecc593564aa1 |title=Elon Musk Teases Traffic-Busting Tunneling Firm 'The Boring Co.' |last=Parnell |first=Brid-Aine |newspaper=Forbes|access-date=January 29, 2017}}</ref> and will probably go to a nearby parking garage. As of January 26, 2017, discussions with [[regulatory agency|regulatory bodies]] have begun,<ref>{{cite web |url=https://www.theguardian.com/technology/2017/jan/25/elon-musk-la-traffic-tunnel |title=Elon Musk to dig tunnel to ease traffic in LA, but he doesn't yet have permission |first=Olivia |last=Solon |date=January 26, 2017 |publisher= |via=The Guardian}}</ref> but
no requests for permits to dig in the Los Angeles area had been filed with the [[California Department of Transportation]] by late January 2017.<ref>{{Cite web |url=http://www.dailynews.com/general-news/20170125/elon-musk-wants-to-start-digging-a-traffic-relieving-tunnel-in-hawthorne-in-a-month-or-so |title=Elon Musk wants to start digging a traffic-relieving tunnel in Hawthorne 'in a month or so' |last=Mazza |first=Sandy |date= |website= |publisher=Los Angeles Daily Times|access-date=January 28, 2017}}</ref>{{update after|2018|1|1}}
In February 2017, the company began digging a 30-foot-wide, 50-foot-long, and 15-foot-deep "test trench" on the premises of Space X's offices in Los Angeles, since the construction requires no permits.<ref>{{cite web |url=https://www.bloomberg.com/news/features/2017-02-16/elon-musk-is-really-boring |title=Elon Musk Is Really Boring |last=Chafkin |first=Max |date=February 16, 2017 |publisher=Bloomberg |accessdate=February 17, 2017}}</ref><ref name="boring">{{Cite news |url=https://www.wired.co.uk/article/elon-musk-tunnel-boring |title=Elon Musk's boring machine has already built a 'test trench' in LA |last=Heathman |first=Amelia |newspaper=Wired UK|access-date=February 19, 2017 |language=en-GB}}</ref>  Musk has said that a 10-fold decrease in tunnel boring cost per mile is necessary for economic feasibility of the proposed tunnel network.<ref>{{cite web|last1=Hanley|first1=Steve|title=Elon Musk Talks About His Vision Of The Future At TED2017|url=http://gas2.org/2017/05/03/elon-musk-talks-vision-future-ted2017/|website=Gas2|accessdate=October 16, 2017}}</ref>{{update after|2017|12|29}}<!-- seems to have been a lot of movement on the Boring Company front since Feb 2017; if going to be covered in this Musk article, this needs an update -->
After a string of negative press targeting Tesla caused Musk to become "frustrated",<ref>{{Cite news|url=http://www.politifact.com/truth-o-meter/article/2018/may/24/elon-musk-new-member-politifacts-truth-squad-heres/|title=Elon Musk joins the Truth Squad and so can you|work=PolitiFact|access-date=2018-07-18|language=en}}</ref> specifically articles published by [[Reveal News]] criticizing Tesla for its factory safety procedures,<ref>{{Cite news|url=https://www.revealnews.org/article/tesla-says-its-factory-is-safer-but-it-left-injuries-off-the-books/|title=Tesla says its factory is safer. But it left injuries off the books|date=2018-04-16|work=Reveal|access-date=2018-07-18|language=en-US}}</ref> Musk announced on [[Twitter]] that he is planning on creating a website where users could rate the truthfulness of specific articles in addition to the credibility of journalists and publications.<ref>{{cite tweet|number=999367582271422464|user=elonmusk|title=Tweet on credibility website idea|author=Elon Musk|date=May 23, 2018}}</ref> He suggested calling it "Pravda" after a [[Pravda|Soviet Union-era Communist Party newspaper of the same name]].
This caused backlash from many journalists, claiming that a platform where any user could freely vote on an article's or a journalist's credibility could be prone to abuse.<ref>{{Cite news|url=https://www.theverge.com/2018/5/24/17390208/elon-musk-pravda-journalism-truth|title=Elon Musk thinks you can crowdsource truth, but that’s not how the internet works|work=The Verge|access-date=2018-07-18}}</ref><ref>{{Cite web|url=https://www.washingtonpost.com/news/innovations/wp/2018/05/24/pravda-elon-musks-solution-for-punishing-journalists/|title=Pravda: Elon Musk’s solution for punishing journalists|last=https://www.facebook.com/peter.holley.923|website=Washington Post|language=en|access-date=2018-07-18}}</ref>
After realizing the site "pravda.com" is used by the Ukrainian Internet newspaper [[Ukrayinska Pravda]], Musk bought the site pravduh.com on May 25, 2018.<ref>{{cite tweet |user=elonmusk |number=1000080833678528512 |date=May 25, 2018 |title= Tweet on buying Pravduh.com|author=Elon Musk}}</ref>
===Tham Luang cave rescue===
[[File:Elon_Musk's_submarine.jpg|alt=|thumb|400x400px|Mini-submarine being tested by divers in a pool.]]
In July 2018, Musk attempted to provide assistance to rescuers during the [[Tham Luang cave rescue]] by ordering his employees to build a small [[rescue pod]].
Musk, responding to requests for help from [[Twitter]] users,<ref>{{cite web|title=Elon Musk joins effort to free Thai boys from cave, as immediate diving attempt ruled out|url=https://www.telegraph.co.uk/news/2018/07/06/elon-musk-joins-effort-free-thai-boys-cave-immediate-diving|archivedate=6 July 2018}}</ref> ordered engineers from two of his companies to design a "kid-sized" submarine to help the rescue effort and publicised the process via Twitter.<ref>{{Cite news|url=https://slate.com/technology/2018/07/elon-musk-is-trying-to-aid-the-thai-cave-rescue-by-sending-engineers-and-brainstorming-on-twitter.html|title=Elon Musk Is Trying to Aid the Thai Cave Rescue by Sending His Engineers and Brainstorming on Twitter|last=Glaser|first=April|work=Slate|access-date=8 July 2018|deadurl=no|archiveurl=https://web.archive.org/web/20180707234959/https://slate.com/technology/2018/07/elon-musk-is-trying-to-aid-the-thai-cave-rescue-by-sending-engineers-and-brainstorming-on-twitter.html|archivedate=7 July 2018}}</ref><ref>{{Cite news|url=https://www.theverge.com/2018/7/7/17544452/elon-musk-spacex-thailand-cave-soccer-team-kid-sized-submarine-rescue|title=Elon Musk says SpaceX is building a ‘kid-sized submarine’ to rescue trapped soccer team|work=The Verge|access-date=8 July 2018|deadurl=no|archiveurl=https://web.archive.org/web/20180708015003/https://www.theverge.com/2018/7/7/17544452/elon-musk-spacex-thailand-cave-soccer-team-kid-sized-submarine-rescue|archivedate=8 July 2018}}</ref> Engineers at Musk's companies [[SpaceX]] and [[The Boring Company]] built the mini-submarine out of a [[Falcon 9]] liquid oxygen transfer tube <ref>{{cite news |last1=Ferris |first1=Robert |title=Elon Musk says his 'mini-submarine' can be used for other things |url=https://www.cnbc.com/2018/07/10/elon-musk-says-his-mini-submarine-can-be-used-for-other-things.html |accessdate=13 July 2018 |publisher=CNBC |date=10 July 2018}}</ref> and personally delivered it to Thailand.
Named "Wild Boar" after the children's soccer team,<ref name="hackday2">{{Cite news|url=https://hackaday.com/2018/07/17/lets-talk-about-elon-musks-submarine/|title=Let’s Talk About Elon Musk’s Submarine|date=2018-07-17|work=Hackaday|access-date=2018-08-11|language=en-US}}</ref> its design, a five foot long, 12 inch wide sealed tube weighing about 90 pounds propelled manually by divers in the front and back,<ref>{{Cite news|url=https://gizmodo.com/elon-musk-says-hes-building-a-tiny-submarine-to-rescue-1827422516|title=Elon Musk Says He's Building a Tiny 'Submarine' to Rescue Thai Soccer Team Trapped in Cave|last=McKay|first=Tom|work=Gizmodo|access-date=2018-08-28|language=en-US}}</ref> was intended to solve the problem of safely transporting the children, who might have had difficulty learning the scuba skills required to exit the cave on their own without panicking.<ref>{{Cite news|url=https://arstechnica.com/science/2018/07/thai-official-elon-musks-submarine-not-practical-for-this-mission/|title=Thai official: Elon Musk’s submarine "not practical for this mission" [Updated]|work=Ars Technica|access-date=2018-08-28|language=en-us}}</ref>  In case the mini-submarine could not fit through the cave system, Elon Musk also requested Wing Inflatables, a California-based inflatable boat manufacturer, to build inflatable escape pods. The pods were designed, fabricated, and tested in one day before being flown to Thailand.<ref>{{cite web|url=https://madriverunion.com/arcatas-wing-inflatables-spacex-collaborate-on-thailand-cave-rescue/|title=Arcata’s Wing Inflatables, SpaceX collaborate on Thailand cave rescue|website=''madriverunion.com''|accessdate=19 July 2018|deadurl=no|archiveurl=https://web.archive.org/web/20180709215725/https://www.teslarati.com/elon-musk-thailand-cave-rescue-wing-inflatables/|archivedate=9 July 2018}}</ref><ref>{{cite web|url=https://www.teslarati.com/elon-musk-thailand-cave-rescue-wing-inflatables/|title=Answering Elon Musk's call for help to build Thailand’s cave rescue pod in 24 hours|website=''teslarati.com''|accessdate=10 July 2018|deadurl=no|archiveurl=https://web.archive.org/web/20180709215725/https://www.teslarati.com/elon-musk-thailand-cave-rescue-wing-inflatables/|archivedate=9 July 2018}}</ref>
By this time, eight of the twelve children had already been rescued and Thai authorities decided not to use the submarine, describing it as technologically impressive but impractical.<ref>{{cite news |title=Thai cave rescue: Elon Musk delivers tiny submarine, rescuers say no thanks |url=http://www.abc.net.au/news/2018-07-10/thai-cave-rescue-elon-musk-submarine-wont-be-needed/9965698 |accessdate=10 July 2018 |publisher=ABC News |date=10 July 2018 |deadurl=no |archiveurl=https://web.archive.org/web/20180710130142/http://www.abc.net.au/news/2018-07-10/thai-cave-rescue-elon-musk-submarine-wont-be-needed/9965698 |archivedate=10 July 2018}}</ref><ref name=":13">{{Cite web|url=https://www.theguardian.com/news/2018/jul/10/elon-musk-queries-expertise-of-thai-cave-rescue-officials|title=Elon Musk queries expertise of Thai cave rescue officials|last=Rawlinson|first=Kevin|date=10 July 2018|website=The Guardian|language=en-GB|archive-url=|archive-date=|dead-url=|access-date=16 July 2018}}</ref><ref name="SuhartoJacobs18">{{cite news |last1=Suhartono |first1=Muktita |last2=Jacobs |first2=Julia |title=Elon Musk Defends His Rejected Mini-Sub Plan for Thai Cave |url=https://www.nytimes.com/2018/07/10/world/asia/elon-musk-thailand-cave-submarine.html |accessdate=16 July 2018 |work=The New York Times |date=15 July 2018 |language=en}}</ref>
==== Device viability ====
The supervisor of the rescue operation Narongsak Osatanakorn dismissed the submarine as “not practical for this mission”. The British rescue caver, Vern Unsworth, who had been exploring the cave for the past six years and who had originally located the trapped football team, said that Musk's idea "had absolutely no chance of working....the submarine, I believe, was about five foot six long, rigid, so it wouldn’t have gone round corners or round any obstacles. It wouldn’t have made the first 50 metres into the cave from the dive start point."<ref>{{cite news|url=https://www.independent.co.uk/news/world/asia/thai-cave-rescue-elon-musk-mini-submarine-british-driver-tham-luang-vern-unsworth-a8447166.html|title=Elon Musk can 'stick his submarine where it hurts', says British caver who helped rescue Thai schoolboys|author=Chris Baynes|date=14 July 2018|accessdate=14 July 2018|website=Independent}}</ref><ref>{{cite web|url=http://fortune.com/2018/07/15/elon-musk-thai-rescue-diver-pedo-guy/|title=Elon Musk Calls Diver in Thai Soccer Team Rescue a Pedophile|date=15 July 2018|accessdate=15 July 2018|author=David Z. Morris|website=Fortune}}</ref> Musk tweeted that Richard Stanton, leader of the international diving team, had earlier urged Musk to continue construction of the mini-submarine as a back-up, in case the flooding worsened.<ref>{{cite web|url=https://twitter.com/elonmusk/status/1016684366083190785|title=Richard Stanton email correspondence |website=''twitter.com''|accessdate=19 July 2018|deadurl=no|archiveurl=https://web.archive.org/web/20180718112856/https://twitter.com/elonmusk/status/1016684366083190785|archivedate=18 July 2018}}</ref>
Although the device could safely hold an occupant, the submarine could not have been used at this operation, as its rigid body was only slightly smaller than the narrowest passages in the cave.<ref name="hackday2" />
====Media coverage and Musk's behavior====
As media coverage of the event grew, some were skeptical of Musk's intentions, claiming the submarine was mainly built for [[publicity]] for Tesla and Musk, citing the apparent uselessness of the device.<ref>{{Cite news|url=https://newrepublic.com/minutes/149689/elon-musks-kid-sized-submarine-gimmick|title=Is Elon Musk’s "kid-sized submarine" a gimmick?|work=The New Republic|access-date=2018-08-31|language=en-US}}</ref><ref>{{Cite web|url=https://www.ft.com/content/39f4d1a6-85d0-11e8-a29d-73e3d454535d|title=Subscribe to read|website=Financial Times|language=en-GB|access-date=2018-08-31}}</ref><ref>{{Cite web|url=https://www.ft.com/content/39f4d1a6-85d0-11e8-a29d-73e3d454535d|title=Elon Musk’s weakness for self-promotion masks his potential|last=|first=|date=|website=Financial Times|language=en-GB|archive-url=|archive-date=|dead-url=|access-date=2018-08-31}}</ref>
One of the [[Cave diving|divers]] said to have played a "major role" in the rescue criticized the submarine as amounting to nothing more than a "PR stunt" that "had absolutely no chance of working" and "he had no conception of what the cave passage was like";<ref>[https://nypost.com/2018/07/15/furious-elon-musk-calls-thai-rescue-diver-a-pedo/ Furious Elon Musk calls Thailand cave rescue diver a ‘pedo’] By Linda Massarella, NYP July 15, 2018</ref> and said that Musk "can stick his submarine where it hurts". Musk reasserted on [[Twitter]] that the device would have worked and referred to the diver as "pedo guy" without offering any evidence to support the claim, causing backlash against Musk.<ref name="Michaels18">{{cite news|url=http://www.businessinsider.com/elon-musk-british-cave-diver-pedo-feud-thai-cave-rescue-2018-7|title=Elon Musk calls British diver from the Thai cave rescue a 'pedo guy' after he said Elon 'can stick his submarine where it hurts'|last1=Michaels|first1=Matthew|date=15 July 2018|work=Business Insider|accessdate=15 July 2018|publisher=Business Insider}}</ref><ref name="Levin18">{{cite news|url=https://www.theguardian.com/technology/2018/jul/15/elon-musk-british-diver-thai-cave-rescue-pedo-twitter|title=Elon Musk calls British diver in Thai cave rescue a 'pedo' in baseless attack|last1=Levin|first1=Sam|date=15 July 2018|work=The Guardian|accessdate=15 July 2018|publisher=The Guardian|language=en}}</ref> He subsequently deleted the tweets, along with an earlier tweet in which he told another critic of the device "Stay tuned jackass".<ref name="Levin18" /> On 16 July, the diver stated that he was considering legal action in relation to Musk's comments.<ref>{{Cite news|url=https://www.bbc.co.uk/news/world-asia-44846945|title=British caver 'could sue' Elon Musk|date=2018-07-16|work=BBC News|access-date=2018-07-16|language=en-GB}}</ref><ref>{{cite news|url=https://www.theguardian.com/uk-news/2018/jul/16/british-diver-in-thai-cave-rescue-stunned-after-attack-by-elon-musk|title=British cave diver considering legal action over Elon Musk's 'pedo' attack|last1=Safi|first1=Michael|date=16 July 2018|work=The Guardian|accessdate=16 July 2018|publisher=The Guardian|last2=Levin|first2=Sam}}</ref>
After Musk's Tweets, Tesla shares fell 4% as some investors worried about his erratic behavior.<ref>{{Cite web|url=http://fortune.com/2018/07/16/elon-musk-pedo-tweet-tesla-stock/|title=After Elon Musk's 'Pedo' Tweet, Tesla Shares Fall 4% as Some Investors Worry About His Erratic Behavior|last=Kelleher|first=Kevin|date=16 July 2018|website=Fortune|archive-url=|archive-date=|dead-url=|access-date=18 July 2018}}</ref> Tesla investors subsequently demanded that Musk apologize.<ref>{{Cite web|url=https://www.theguardian.com/technology/2018/jul/17/tesla-elon-musk-thailand-diver-pedo|title=Tesla investors demand Elon Musk apologize for calling Thailand diver 'pedo'|last=Levin|first=Sam|date=17 July 2018|website=The Guardian|archive-url=|archive-date=|dead-url=|access-date=18 July 2018}}</ref> Two days later, Musk issued an apology for his remarks:<ref>{{Cite web|url=https://www.cnbc.com/2018/07/18/elon-musk-apologizes-to-british-cave-diver-followingbaseless-pedo-gu.html|title=Elon Musk apologizes to British cave diver following baseless 'pedo guy' claim|last=Browne|first=Ryan|date=|website=CNBC|archive-url=|archive-date=|dead-url=|access-date=18 July 2018}}</ref><ref>{{Cite web|url=https://www.news.com.au/technology/innovation/elon-musk-apologises-for-calling-thai-rescue-diver-a-pedo/news-story/606b3fc050064b9b5d39b7db133a46f1|title=Elon Musk apologises for calling Thai rescue diver a ‘pedo’|last=Chang|first=Charis|date=18 July 2018|website=news.com.au|archive-url=|archive-date=|dead-url=|access-date=18 July 2018}}</ref> "The fault is mine and mine alone" <ref>{{Cite web|url=https://twitter.com/elonmusk/status/1019472152796381185|title=Twitter|last=|first=|date=17 July 2018|website=|archive-url=|archive-date=|dead-url=|access-date=18 July 2018}}</ref> and "...my words were spoken in anger..."<ref>{{Cite web|url=https://www.cnet.com/news/elon-musk-apologises-for-pedo-guy-comment/|title=Elon Musk apologises for calling Thai cave rescue diver 'pedo guy'|last=Van Boom|first=Daniel|date=18 July 2018|website=CNET|archive-url=|archive-date=|dead-url=|access-date=18 July 2018}}</ref>
On August 28, 2018, in response to criticism from a writer on Twitter regarding how Musk had handled the diver's criticism, Musk circled back to the pedophilia accusation tweeting "You don’t think it’s strange he hasn’t sued me? He was offered free legal services. [...]".<ref name="Mac18">{{cite news |last1=Mac |first1=Ryan |title=Elon Musk Revisits Baseless Pedophile Claims |url=https://www.buzzfeednews.com/article/ryanmac/elon-musk-revisits-baseless-pedophile-claims |accessdate=28 August 2018 |work=BuzzFeed News |language=en}}</ref>
The following day, a letter from [[L. Lin Wood]], the rescuer's attorney, dated August 6, emerged, showing that he had been making preparations for a libel lawsuit.<ref name="Mac-8-29-18">{{cite news |last1=Mac |first1=Ryan |title=The Rescuer Elon Musk Called A "Pedo" Is Preparing A Libel Claim |url=https://www.buzzfeednews.com/article/ryanmac/the-british-diver-elon-musk-called-a-pedo-threatened-to-sue |accessdate=29 August 2018 |work=BuzzFeed News |date=29 August 2018 |language=en}}</ref><ref name="Castillo18">{{cite news |last1=Castillo |first1=Michelle |title=Cave explorer Elon Musk called a 'pedo guy' is preparing a lawsuit |url=https://www.cnbc.com/2018/08/29/cave-explorer-elon-musk-called-a-pedo-guy-is-preparing-a-lawsuit.html |accessdate=29 August 2018 |work=CNBC |date=29 August 2018}}</ref>
On 5 September 2018, a reporter from ''[[Buzzfeed News]]'' published an email written by Musk on August 30 marked "off the record", saying "I suggest that you call people you know in Thailand, find out what's actually going on and stop defending child rapists, you fucking asshole. As for this alleged threat of a lawsuit, which magically appeared when I raised the issue ... I fucking hope he sues me."  Musk confirmed that he had sent the email.<ref>{{cite news |last1=Levin |first1=Sam |title=Elon Musk calls Thailand diver 'child rapist' in latest baseless attack |url=https://www.theguardian.com/technology/2018/sep/04/elon-musk-claims-diver-in-thai-cave-rescue-is-child-rapist-without-evidence |accessdate=5 September 2018 |publisher=The Guardian |date=5 September 2018}}</ref>
[[File:The Summit 2013.jpg|thumb|300px|left|Musk speaking alongside former Irish [[Taoiseach]] (Prime Minister) [[Enda Kenny]] in 2013]]
Politically, Musk has described himself as "half [[Democratic Party (United States)|Democrat]], half [[Republican Party (United States)|Republican]]." In his own words: "I'm somewhere in the middle, socially liberal and fiscally conservative."<ref>{{cite web |url=https://www.youtube.com/watch?v=B1OPxitgvmw |title=Elon Musk: The Way Of The Future |publisher=YouTube |accessdate=November 4, 2015}}</ref> Prompted by the emergence of self-driving cars and artificial intelligence, Musk has voiced support for a universal [[basic income]];<ref>{{cite news |url=http://mashable.com/2016/11/05/elon-musk-universal-basic-income/ |title=Elon Musk thinks universal income is answer to automation taking human jobs |website=[[mashable.com]] |first=Adario |last=Strange |date=November 5, 2016 |accessdate=February 6, 2017}}</ref> he additionally backs [[direct democracy]].<ref>{{Cite news|url=https://twitter.com/elonmusk/status/1008124944289370113|title=Elon Musk on Twitter|work=Twitter|access-date=2018-06-29|language=en}}</ref> He has described himself as a [[Social democracy|socialist]], but "not the kind that shifts resources from most productive to least productive, pretending to do good, while actually causing harm" - arguing instead, "true socialism seeks greatest good for all."<ref>{{Cite news|url=https://twitter.com/elonmusk/status/1008013111058526209|title=Elon Musk on Twitter|work=Twitter|access-date=2018-06-29|language=en}}</ref> He supports targeting an inclusive tax rate of 40%, prefers [[consumption tax]]es to [[income tax]]es, and supports the [[Inheritance tax|estate tax]], as the "probability of progeny being equally excellent at capital allocation is not high."<ref>{{Cite news|url=https://twitter.com/elonmusk/status/1009362316536602625|title=Elon Musk on Twitter|work=Twitter|access-date=2018-06-29|language=en}}</ref>
Musk has described the United States as "[inarguably] the greatest country that has ever existed on Earth," describing it as "the greatest force for good of any country that's ever been." Musk believes outright that there "would not be democracy in the world if not for the United States," arguing there were "three separate occasions in the 20th-century where democracy would have fallen with [[World War I]], [[World War II]] and the [[Cold War]], if not for the United States." Musk also stated that he thinks "it would be a mistake to say the United States is perfect, it certainly is not. There have been many foolish things the United States has done and bad things the United States has done."<ref>{{cite web |url=https://www.pbs.org/thinktank/transcript1292.html |title=Elon Musk and the frontier of Technology |accessdate=June 12, 2015 |website=Think Tank |publisher=PBS.org |last=Wattenberg |first=Ben}}</ref>
Prior to the election of [[Donald Trump]] as [[President of the United States]], Musk criticized candidate Trump by saying: "I feel a bit stronger that he is probably not the right guy. He doesn't seem to have the sort of character that reflects well on the United States."<ref>{{cite web |url=http://www.businessinsider.in/Elon-Musk-on-Trump-presidency-I-dont-think-hes-the-right-guy/articleshow/55251034.cms |title=Elon Musk on Trump presidency: 'I don't think he's the right guy' |author= |date= |work=businessinsider.in |accessdate=March 21, 2017}}</ref> Following Donald Trump's inauguration, Musk expressed approval of Trump's choice of [[Rex Tillerson]] as [[United States Secretary of State|Secretary of State]] and accepted an invitation to appear on a panel advising President Trump. Regarding his cooperation with Trump, Musk has subsequently commented: "The more voices of reason that the President hears, the better."<ref>{{cite news |url=https://www.bbc.com/news/technology-38753819 |title=Elon Musk: I'm Trump's voice of reason |work=[[BBC News]] |first=Dave |last=Lee |date=January 26, 2017 |accessdate=January 29, 2017}}</ref> He subsequently resigned from both in June 2017, in protest at Trump's decision to [[United States withdrawal from the Paris Agreement|withdraw the United States]] from the [[Paris Agreement]] on climate change.<ref>{{cite news |url=https://www.bbc.co.uk/news/live/world-us-canada-40123293 |title=US quits Paris climate pact: Reaction from around the world following the US president's decision on the Paris accord |accessdate=June 1, 2017}}</ref><ref>{{cite news |url=https://twitter.com/elonmusk/status/870369915894546432 |title=Elon Musk anouncing departing presidential councils on Twitter |accessdate=June 1, 2017}}</ref>
In an interview with ''[[The Washington Post]]'', Musk stated he was a "significant (though not top-tier) donor to [[Democratic Party (United States)|Democrats]]," but that he also gives heavily to [[Republican Party (United States)|Republicans]]. Musk further stated, "in order to have your voice be heard in [[Washington, D.C.|Washington]], you have to make some little contribution."<ref name="huffingtonpost.com">{{cite news |url=http://www.huffingtonpost.com/2013/02/20/elon-musk-spacex_n_2727312.html |title=Elon Musk, SpaceX Founder, Battles Entrenched Rivals Over NASA Contracts |work=The Huffington Post |accessdate=May 30, 2015 |date=February 20, 2013}}</ref><ref>{{cite web |url=http://www.fightforvotes.com/obama-and-congress-at-odds-over-elon-musk |title=Obama and Congress at odds over Elon Musk |publisher=fightforvotes.com |accessdate=May 30, 2015 |deadurl=yes |archiveurl=https://web.archive.org/web/20150530204604/http://www.fightforvotes.com/obama-and-congress-at-odds-over-elon-musk/ |archivedate=May 30, 2015 |df=}}</ref>
A recent report from the [[Sunlight Foundation]] (a nonpartisan group that tracks government spending), found that "[[SpaceX]] has spent over {{US$|4&nbsp;million}} on [[lobbying]] [[United States Congress|Congress]] since it was established in 2002 and doled out more than {{US$|800,000}} in political contributions" to Democrats and Republicans. The same report noted that "SpaceX's campaign to win political support has been systematic and sophisticated," and that "unlike most tech-startups, SpaceX has maintained a significant lobbying presence in Washington almost since day{{nbsp}}1." The report further noted that "Musk himself has donated roughly {{US$|725,000}} to various campaigns since 2002. In 2004, he contributed {{US$|2,000}} to President [[George W. Bush]]'s reelection campaign, maxing out (over {{US$|100,000}})<ref>Timothy P. Carney, [http://www.washingtonexaminer.com/carney-green-stimulus-profiteer-comes-under-irs-scrutiny/article/2510619 "Carney: Green stimulus profiteer comes under IRS scrutiny"], WashingtonExaminer.com, October 14, 2012.</ref> to [[Barack Obama]]'s reelection campaign and donated {{US$|5,000}} to Republican Sen. [[Marco Rubio]], who represents Florida, a state critical to the [[space industry]]. (...) All told, Musk and SpaceX gave out roughly {{US$|250,000}} in the 2012 election cycle."<ref name="huffingtonpost.com"/><ref name=":1">{{cite web |url=http://sunlightfoundation.com/blog/2012/05/22/spacex-blasts-literally-and-politically |title=SpaceX blasts off literally and politically |publisher=Sunlight Foundation |accessdate=May 30, 2015}}</ref> Additionally, SpaceX hired former Republican [[Senate Majority Leader]] [[Trent Lott]] to represent the company, via the Washington-based lobbying group [[Patton Boggs LLP]]. Alongside Patton Boggs LLP, SpaceX uses several other outside lobbying firms, who work with SpaceX's own lobbyists.<ref>{{Cite news |url=https://www.bloomberg.com/news/articles/2013-09-27/billionaires-battle-as-bezos-musk-companies-vie-for-launch-pad |title=Billionaires Battle as Bezos-Musk Companies Vie for Launch Pad |date=September 27, 2013 |accessdate=July 1, 2015 |website=Bloomberg.com |publisher=Bloomberg Business |last=Salant |first=Jonathan D.}}</ref>
Musk had been a supporter of the U.S. [[political action committee]] (PAC) [[FWD.us]], which was started by fellow high-profile entrepreneur [[Mark Zuckerberg]] and advocates for [[Immigration reform#United States|immigration reform]]. However, in May 2013, Musk publicly withdrew his support in protest of advertisements the PAC was running that supported causes like the [[Keystone Pipeline]]. Musk and other members, including [[David O. Sacks]], pulled out, criticizing the strategy as "cynical."<ref>Steven Kovach, [http://www.businessinsider.com/elon-musk-says-zuckerbergs-pac-cynical-2013-5 "Elon Musk Says He Quit Mark Zuckerberg's PAC Because It Was Too Cynical"], BusinessInsider.com, May 31, 2013.</ref> Musk further stated, "we shouldn't give in to the politics. If we give in to that, we'll get the political system we deserve."<ref name="mic.com2013"/>
In December 2013, Sean Becker of the media/political website [[Mic (media company)|Mic]] called Musk a "complete hypocrite," stating that "[for] the 2014 election cycle, Musk has contributed to the Longhorn PAC and the [[National Republican Congressional Committee]] – both of which have funded the campaigns of [[anti-science]], [[Anti-environmentalism|anti-environment]] candidates such as Rep. [[Michele Bachmann|Michelle Bachman]] (R-Minn.)."<ref name="mic.com2013">{{cite web |url=http://mic.com/articles/76165/elon-musk-donated-to-anti-science-republicans |title=Elon Musk Donated to Anti-Science Republicans |date=December 11, 2013 |accessdate=June 10, 2015 |website=[[Mic (media company)|Mic]] |publisher=Policy.Mic |last=Becker |first=Sean}}</ref> Musk has directly contributed to Republican Sen. Marco Rubio, who has been accused of holding similar positions regarding [[climate change]].<ref name=":1"/>
Musk has stated that he does not believe the U.S. government should provide [[subsidies]] to companies but should instead use a [[carbon tax]] to price in the negative [[externality]] of [[air pollution]] and discourage "bad behavior." Musk argues that the [[free market]] would achieve the "best solution," and that producing environmentally unfriendly vehicles should come with its own consequences.<ref>{{cite web|url=http://qz.com/564782/elon-musk-says-tax-free-carbon-is-the-dumbest-experiment-in-history/|title=Elon Musk says tax-free carbon is "the dumbest experiment in history"|last1=Werber|first1=Cassie|publisher=Quartz|accessdate=August 30, 2016}}</ref>
Musk's statements have been widely criticized, with [[Stanford University]] Professor [[Fred Turner (author)|Fred Turner]] noting that "if you're an entrepreneur like Elon Musk, you will take the money where you can get it, but at the same time believe as a matter of faith that it's entrepreneurship and technology that are the sources of [[social change]], not the state. It is not quite self-delusion, but there is a habit of thinking of oneself as a free-standing, independent agent, and of not acknowledging the subsidies that one received. And this goes on all the time in Silicon Valley."<ref>{{cite web|url=https://www.motherjones.com/politics/2013/10/tesla-motors-free-ride-elon-musk-government-subsidies|title=Taxpayer Subsidies Helped Tesla Motors, So Why Does Elon Musk Slam Them?|work=Mother Jones|accessdate=April 19, 2015}}</ref> Author [[Michael Shellenberger]] argued that "in the case of Musk, it is hard not to read that as a kind of defensiveness. And I think there is a business reason for it. They are dealing with a lot of investors for whom subsidies are not the basis for a long-term viable business, and they often want to exaggerate the speed with which they are going to be able to become independent." Shellenberger continues, "we would all be better off if these entrepreneurs were a bit more grateful, a bit more humble." While journalist and author [[Jim Motavalli]], who interviewed Musk for ''High Voltage'', his 2011 book about the electric vehicle industry, speculated that "Elon is now looking at it from the point of view of a winner, and he doesn't want to see other people win because they get government money – I do think there is a tendency of people, once they have succeeded, to want to pull the ladder up after them."<ref>{{cite web|url=https://www.motherjones.com/politics/2013/10/tesla-motors-free-ride-elon-musk-government-subsidies?page=2|title=Taxpayer Subsidies Helped Tesla Motors, So Why Does Elon Musk Slam Them?|last=Harkinson|first=Josh|date=September 2013|work=[[Mother Jones (magazine)|Mother Jones]]|accessdate=June 10, 2015}}</ref>
In 2015, Musk's statements were subject to further scrutiny when an ''[[LA Times]]'' article claimed that [[SpaceX]], Tesla, [[SolarCity]] and buyers of their products had or were projected to receive together an estimated {{US$|4.9&nbsp;billion}} in government subsidies over twenty years. One example given is New York state, which is spending $750&nbsp;million to build a solar panel factory in Buffalo which will be leased to SolarCity for $1 a year. The deal also includes no property taxes for a decade, an estimated $260&nbsp;million valuation. Musk employs a former U.S. State Department official as the chief negotiator for Tesla.<ref>{{Cite news|url=http://www.latimes.com/business/la-fi-hy-musk-subsidies-20150531-story.html#page=1|title=Elon Musk's growing empire is fuelled by &nbsp;billion in government subsidies|last=Hirsch|first=Jerry|date=May 30, 2015|work=Los Angeles Times|accessdate=June 2, 2015}}</ref>
===Destiny and religion===
When asked whether he believed "there was some kind of [[destiny]] involved" in humanity's transition to a multi-planetary species, rather than "just physics," Musk responded:
<blockquote>Well, I do. Do I think that there's some sort of master intelligence architecting all of this stuff? I think probably not because then you have to say: "Where does the master intelligence come from?" So it sort of begs the question. So I think really you can explain this with the fundamental laws of physics. You know it's complex phenomenon from simple elements.<ref>{{cite web |url=http://www.oninnovation.com/videos/detail.aspx?video=1549&title=Going+to+Mars |title=Going to Mars with Elon Musk |date=June 2008 |accessdate=June 10, 2015 |website=OnInnovation.com}}<br />[https://www.thehenryford.org/explore/stories-of-innovation/visionaries/elon-musk/#gallery-video=JkNm43MToXXZ5r2zNap-Ixa5FkAkaILW Going To Mars] (alt link retrieved Feb 2, 2018)</ref></blockquote>
Musk has stated that he does not pray, or worship any being, although previously admitted to praying before an important [[Falcon 1]] launch, asking "any entities that [were] listening" to "bless [the] launch." When asked whether he believed "religion and science could [[Relationship between religion and science|co-exist]]," Musk replied "probably not."<ref name="Wilson">{{cite web |url=https://www.theverge.com/2013/3/19/4122624/elon-musk-mars-colony-terraforming-spacex-video-rainn-wilson-metaphysical-milkshake |title=Elon Musk and Rainn Wilson discuss colonizing Mars, global warming, and the fear of failure |date=March 19, 2013 |accessdate=June 12, 2015 |website=The Verge}}</ref>
===Extraterrestrial life===
Although Musk believes "there is a good chance that there is simple life on other planets," he "questions whether there is other intelligent life in the known universe."<ref name="Wilson"/> Musk later clarified his "hope that there is other intelligent life in the known universe," and stated that it is "probably more likely than not, but that's a complete guess."<ref>{{cite web |url=https://www.youtube.com/watch?v=s3RlCVtQ6mA |title=Elon Musk, CEO and CTO, Space Exploration Technologies Corp (SpaceX), Peter Diamandis, CEO, X Prize Foundation and John Doerr, Venture Capital, Kleiner Perkins Caufield & Byers |publisher=YouTube |accessdate=November 4, 2015}}</ref>
Musk has also considered the [[simulation hypothesis]] as a potential solution to the [[Fermi paradox]]:
<blockquote>The absence of any noticeable life may be an argument in favour of us being in a simulation.... Like when you're playing an adventure game, and you can see the stars in the background, but you can't ever get there. If it's not a simulation, then maybe we're in a lab and there's some advanced alien civilization that's just watching how we develop, out of curiosity, like mould in a petri dish.... If you look at our current technology level, something strange has to happen to civilizations, and I mean strange in a bad way. ... And it could be that there are a whole lot of dead, one-planet civilizations.<ref>{{cite web |url=http://aeon.co/magazine/technology/the-elon-musk-interview-on-mars |title=The Elon Musk Interview on Mars Colonization |date=September 30, 2014 |accessdate=June 10, 2015 |work=[[Aeon (digital magazine)|Aeon]] |last=Anderson |first=Ross}}</ref></blockquote>
===Artificial intelligence===
Musk has frequently spoken about the [[existential risk from advanced artificial intelligence|potential dangers]] of [[artificial intelligence]], declaring it "the most serious threat to the survival of the human race." During a 2014 interview at the [[MIT]] AeroAstro Centennial Symposium, Musk described AI as "[humanity's] biggest existential threat," further stating, "I'm increasingly inclined to think that there should be some regulatory oversight, maybe at the national and international level, just to make sure that we don't do something very foolish." Musk described the creation of artificial intelligence as "summoning the demon".<ref name="guardianAI">{{cite web |url=https://www.theguardian.com/technology/2014/oct/27/elon-musk-artificial-intelligence-ai-biggest-existential-threat |title=Elon Musk: artificial intelligence is our biggest existential threat |first1=Samuel |last1=Gibbs |date=October 27, 2014 |publisher=''[[The Guardian]]'' |accessdate=December 15, 2015}}</ref><ref name="wp2015">{{cite web |url=https://www.washingtonpost.com/news/the-switch/wp/2015/07/28/elon-musk-and-stephen-hawking-think-we-should-ban-killer-robots/ |archiveurl=https://web.archive.org/web/20160308074506/http://www.washingtonpost.com/news/the-switch/wp/2015/07/28/elon-musk-and-stephen-hawking-think-we-should-ban-killer-robots/ |title=Elon Musk and Stephen Hawking think we should ban killer robots |date=July 28, 2015 |archivedate=March 8, 2016 |work=Washington Post |accessdate=January 5, 2017 |deadurl=no}}</ref>
Despite this, Musk has previously invested in [[DeepMind]], an AI firm, and [[Vicarious (Company)|Vicarious]], a company working to improve [[machine intelligence]]. In January 2015, he donated $10&nbsp;million to the [[Future of Life Institute]], an organization focused on challenges posed by advanced technologies.<ref name="bi2015">{{cite web |url=http://www.businessinsider.com/elon-musk-donates-10-million-to-the-future-of-life-institute-2015-1 |title=Elon Musk Is Donating Million To Keep Killer Robots From Taking Over The World |first1=Maya |last1=Kosoff |date=January 15, 2015 |publisher=''[[Business Insider]]'' |accessdate=December 15, 2015}}</ref> He is the co-chairman of [[OpenAI]], a nonprofit artificial intelligence research company.<ref>{{cite web |url=http://www.techinsider.io/elon-musk-just-announced-a-new-artificial-intelligence-research-company-2015-12 |title=Elon Musk just announced a new artificial intelligence research company |first1=Danielle |last1=Muoio |date=December 11, 2015 |publisher=Tech Insider |accessdate=December 11, 2015}}</ref>
Musk has said that his investments are, "not from the standpoint of actually trying to make any investment return... I like to just keep an eye on what's going on with artificial intelligence." Musk continued, "There have been movies about this, you know, like ''[[Terminator (franchise)|Terminator]]'' – there are some scary outcomes. And we should try to make sure the outcomes are good, not bad."<ref>{{Cite news |url=https://www.theguardian.com/technology/2014/jun/18/elon-musk-deepmind-ai-tesla-motors |title=Elon Musk says he invested in DeepMind over 'Terminator' fears |last=Hern |first=Alex |date=June 18, 2014 |accessdate=June 10, 2015 |via=[[The Guardian]]}}</ref>
In June 2016, Musk was asked whether he thinks [[Simulated reality#Simulation argument|humans live in a computer simulation]], to which he answered:
<blockquote>The strongest argument for us probably being in a simulation I think is the following: 40 years ago we had [[Pong]] – two rectangles and a dot. That's where we were. Now 40 years later we have photorealistic, 3D simulations with millions of people playing simultaneously and it's getting better every year. And soon we'll have virtual reality, we'll have augmented reality. If you assume any rate of improvement at all, then the games will become indistinguishable from reality, just indistinguishable.<ref>{{Cite web |url=https://www.independent.co.uk/life-style/gadgets-and-tech/news/elon-musk-ai-artificial-intelligence-computer-simulation-gaming-virtual-reality-a7060941.html |title=We are living in a computer simulation, Elon Musk says |date=June 2, 2016 |publisher=The Independent |language=en-GB |access-date=June 30, 2016}}</ref></blockquote>
Elon Musk's dark warnings over Artificial Intelligence have brought him some controversy. He and [[Facebook]] founder [[Mark Zuckerberg]] have clashed with the latter terming his warnings "irresponsible". Musk responded to Zuckerberg's censure by saying that he had discussed AI with Zuckerberg and found him to have only a "limited understanding" of the subject. In 2014 [[Slate (magazine)|Slate]]'s Adam Elkus argued "our 'smartest' AI is about as intelligent as a toddler—and only when it comes to instrumental tasks like information recall. Most roboticists are still trying to get a robot hand to pick up a ball or run around without falling over." Elkus goes on to argue that Musk's "summoning the demon" analogy may be harmful because it could result in "harsh cuts" to AI research budgets.<ref>{{cite news|last1=Elkus|first1=Adam|title=Don’t Fear Artificial Intelligence|url=http://www.slate.com/articles/technology/future_tense/2014/10/elon_musk_artificial_intelligence_why_you_shouldn_t_be_afraid_of_ai.html|accessdate=May 15, 2016|work=[[Slate (magazine)|Slate]]|date=October 31, 2014|language=en-US}}</ref>
The [[Information Technology and Innovation Foundation]] (ITIF), a Washington D.C. think-tank, awarded its Annual Luddite Award to "alarmists touting an artificial intelligence apocalypse"; its president, [[Robert D. Atkinson]], complained that Musk and others say AI is the largest existential threat to humanity. Atkinson stated "That's not a very winning message if you want to get AI funding out of Congress to the National Science Foundation."<ref>[https://itif.org/publications/2016/01/19/artificial-intelligence-alarmists-win-itif%E2%80%99s-annual-luddite-award Artificial Intelligence Alarmists Win ITIF’s Annual Luddite Award], ITIF Website, January 19, 2016</ref><ref>{{cite news|title='Artificial intelligence alarmists' like Elon Musk and Stephen Hawking win 'Luddite of the Year' award|url=https://www.independent.co.uk/life-style/gadgets-and-tech/news/elon-musk-stephen-hawking-luddite-award-of-the-year-itif-a6821921.html|accessdate=February 25, 2018|work=[[The Independent (UK)]]|date=January 19, 2016}}</ref><ref>{{cite news|last1=Price|first1=Emily|title=Elon Musk nominated for 'luddite' of the year prize over artificial intelligence fears|work=[[The Guardian]]|url=https://www.theguardian.com/technology/2015/dec/24/elon-musk-nominated-for-luddite-of-the-year-prize-over-artificial-intelligence-fears|accessdate=February 25, 2018|date=December 24, 2015}}</ref> ''[[Nature (journal)|Nature]]'' sharply disagreed with the ITIF in an April 2016 editorial, siding instead with Musk, and concluding: "It is crucial that progress in technology is matched by solid, well-funded research to anticipate the scenarios it could bring about... If that is a Luddite perspective, then so be it."<ref>{{cite journal|title=Anticipating artificial intelligence|journal=Nature|date=April 26, 2016|volume=532|issue=7600|page=413|doi=10.1038/532413a|url=http://www.nature.com/news/anticipating-artificial-intelligence-1.19825|pmid=27121801|bibcode=2016Natur.532Q.413.}}</ref> In a 2015 ''[[Washington Post]]'' editorial, researcher [[Murray Shanahan]] stated that human-level AI is unlikely to arrive "anytime soon," but that nevertheless "the time to start thinking through the consequences is now."<ref>{{cite news|author1=Murray Shanahan|author-link=Murray Shanahan|title=Machines may seem intelligent, but it’ll be a while before they actually are|url=https://www.washingtonpost.com/news/in-theory/wp/2015/11/03/machines-may-seem-intelligent-but-itll-be-a-while-before-they-actually-are/|accessdate=February 26, 2018|work=[[The Washington Post]]|date=November 3, 2015|language=en-US}}</ref>
===Public transport===
At a Tesla event on the sidelines of the [[Conference on Neural Information Processing Systems]] in December 2017, Musk stated that:<blockquote>I think public transport is painful. It sucks. Why do you want to get on something with a lot of other people, that doesn’t leave where you want it to leave, doesn’t start where you want it to start, doesn’t end where you want it to end? And it doesn’t go all the time. [...] It’s a pain in the ass. That’s why everyone doesn’t like it. And there’s like a bunch of random strangers, one of who might be a serial killer, OK, great. And so that's why people like individualized transport, that goes where you want, when you want.<ref name=":3">{{Cite news|url=https://www.inverse.com/article/39433-elon-musk-sparks-heated-twitter-debate-over-boring-company-s-vision|title=Elon Musk Sparks Heated Twitter Debate Over Boring Company's Vision|last=Brown|first=Mike|date=15 Dec 2017|work=Inverse|access-date=December 23, 2017|language=en}}</ref></blockquote>Afterwards, he dismissed an audience member’s response that public transportation functioned effectively in Japan.<ref name=":4">{{Cite news|url=https://www.theguardian.com/cities/2017/dec/21/elon-musk-public-transport-transit-painful-twitter|title='I met my wife on a train platform': Twitter responds to Elon Musk with positive public transport stories|last=Hunt|first=Elle|date=December 21, 2017|work=The Guardian|access-date=December 23, 2017|language=en-GB|issn=0261-3077}}</ref><ref>{{Cite news|url=https://www.wired.com/story/elon-musk-awkward-dislike-mass-transit/|title=Elon Musk Really Doesn't Like Mass Transit Systems He's Trying to Build|last=Marshall|first=Aarian|date=December 14, 2017|work=WIRED|access-date=December 23, 2017|language=en-US}}</ref>
His comment sparked widespread criticism from both the public and transit experts. Urban planning expert Brent Toderian started the hashtag #GreatThingsThatHappenedonTransit which was widely adopted by Twitter users in order to dispel Musk's notion that everybody hated public transport.<ref name=":4" /><ref>{{Cite web|url=https://twitter.com/BrentToderian/status/942967831833993218|title=Elon Musk may say bad things about public transit, but I asked Twitter to share their #GreatThingsThatHappenedOnTransit! As usual, Twitter responded in spades. Here are some of my favourites for posterity - please enjoy & share!|last=Toderian|first=Brent|date=December 18, 2017|[email protected]|language=en|access-date=December 23, 2017}}</ref><ref>{{Cite news|url=http://www.abc.net.au/news/2017-03-24/brisbane-planning-sick-cities-brent-toderian-heart-foundation/8381574|title=Brisbane's urban planning 'average' and making residents sick, expert says|last=Hamilton-Smith|first=Lexy|date=March 23, 2017|work=ABC News|access-date=December 26, 2017|language=en-AU}}</ref> Yonah Freemark, an urbanist and journalist specialising in planning and transportation, summarised Musk's views on public transport as "It's terrible. You might be killed. Japanese trains are awful. Individualized transport for everyone! Congestion? Induced demand? Climate change impacts? Unwalkable streets? Who cares!"<ref name=":3" />
Jarrett Walker, a known public transport expert and consultant from [[Portland, Oregon|Portland]], said that "Musk's hatred of sharing space with strangers is a luxury (or pathology) that only the rich can afford," referring to the theory that planning a city around the preferences&nbsp;of a minority yields&nbsp;an outcome that usually does not work for the majority.<ref name=wired20171216/><ref>{{Cite web|url=https://twitter.com/humantransit/status/941386665519595521|title=In cities, @elonmusk's hatred of sharing space with strangers is a luxury (or pathology) that only the rich can afford.  Letting him design cities is the essence of elite projection.|last=Walker|first=Jarrett|date=December 14, 2017|[email protected]|language=en|access-date=December 23, 2017}}</ref><ref>{{Cite news|url=http://humantransit.org/2017/07/the-dangers-of-elite-projection.html|title=The Dangers of Elite Projection — Human Transit|last=Walker|first=Jarrett|date=July 31, 2017|work=Human Transit|access-date=December 23, 2017|language=en-US}}</ref> Musk responded with "You're an idiot," later saying "Sorry [...] Meant to say 'sanctimonious idiot.'"<ref>{{Cite web|url=https://twitter.com/elonmusk/status/941500121564332032|title=You’re an idiot|last=Musk|first=Elon|date=December 14, 2017|[email protected]|language=en|access-date=December 23, 2017}}</ref><ref>{{Cite web|url=https://twitter.com/elonmusk/status/941505105420881921|title=Sorry|last=Musk|first=Elon|date=December 14, 2017|[email protected]|language=en|access-date=December 23, 2017}}</ref><ref>{{Cite web|url=https://twitter.com/elonmusk/status/941551760799277056|title=Meant to say "sanctimonious idiot"|last=Musk|first=Elon|date=December 14, 2017|[email protected]|language=en|access-date=December 23, 2017}}</ref> The exchange received a significant amount of media attention and prompted Nobel laureate [[Paul Krugman]] to comment on the controversy, saying that apparently, "You're an idiot" is Musk's idea of a cogent argument.<ref name="wired20171216">{{Cite news|url=http://fortune.com/2017/12/16/elon-musk-public-transport/|title=Elon Musk Calls Transit Expert 'An Idiot,' Says Public Transport 'Sucks'|last=Morris|first=David Z.|date=December 16, 2017|work=Fortune|access-date=December 23, 2017|language=en}}</ref><ref>{{Cite web|url=https://twitter.com/paulkrugman/status/943105389800951809|title=Elon Musk's idea of a cogent argument: "You're an idiot"http://fortune.com/2017/12/16/elon-musk-public-transport/&nbsp;…|last=Krugman|first=Paul|date=December 19, 2017|[email protected]|language=en|access-date=December 23, 2017}}</ref>
==Personal life==
Musk owned a [[McLaren F1]] [[supercar]], which he crashed while it was uninsured.<ref>{{cite web |url=http://jalopnik.com/5925789/watch-elon-musk-explain-how-he-wrecked-an-uninsured-1-million-mclaren-f1 |title=Elon Musk Explains How He Wrecked An Uninsured Million McLaren F1 |author=Matt Hardigree |work=Jalopnik}}</ref><ref>{{cite web|url=https://samiaal.kuvat.fi/kuvat/1993-1998+MCLAREN+F1+/MCLAREN+F1+-+ENGLISH/CHASSIS+067/|title=1997 McLaren F1 #067|work=1993-1998 McLaren F1 road car|first=Sami|last=Aaltonen|quote=in 2000 or 2001 … bought by Elon Musk. … kept the car from 1999-2007 and during his ownership he drove an accident, but the car wasn't badly damaged.}}</ref> He also previously owned an [[Aero L-39]], a Czech-made [[jet trainer]] aircraft.<ref>{{cite news|url=http://archive.fortune.com/magazines/fortune/fortune_archive/2003/10/06/350397/index.htm|title= My Idea Of Fun: Flying Elon Musk, CEO, Space Exploration Technologies, developer of space-launch vehicles|first=Elon|last=Musk|date=6 October 2003|accessdate=20 August 2018|work=[[Fortune (magazine)|Fortune]]|quote=the most fun plane I have is a Russian fighter jet. It's called an L-39. It has a Czech air frame, a Ukrainian engine, Russian avionics}}</ref><ref>{{cite news |url=http://www.spacex.com/media.php?page=44 |title=A Bold Plan to Go Where Men Have Gone Before |first=Leslie |last=Wayne |work=The New York Times |date=February 5, 2006}}</ref><ref>{{cite book|work=Warbirds Directory|first1=Geoff|last1=Goodall|first2=John|last2=Chapman|year=2008|url=http://www.goodall.com.au/warbirds-directory-v6/aero-vodochody-let.pdf|title=Aero Vodochody/LET L-29 Delfin|quote=031629, L-39C, N97NL, Elon Musk, Palo Alto CA, later Los Angeles CA <time datetime="2002-03-28" title="March 28, 2002">28.3.02</time>/<time datetime="2006" title="2006">06</time>}}</ref>
The 1994 model [[Dassault Falcon 900]] aircraft used in the 2005 film ''[[Thank You for Smoking (film)|Thank You for Smoking]]'' was registered to Musk (N900SX),<ref name="FlightAaware N900SK">{{cite web |last=FlightAware |title=Aircraft Registration N900SK |url=http://flightaware.com/resources/registration/N900SX |accessdate=June 25, 2012}}</ref> and Musk had a cameo as the pilot of his plane, opening the door for [[Robert Duvall]] and escorting [[Aaron Eckhart]] aboard. Musk owns [[Wet Nellie]], the [[Lotus Esprit]] from the [[James Bond]] film ''[[The Spy Who Loved Me (film)|The Spy Who Loved Me]]''. He plans to convert it into the functional car-submarine from the film.<ref name="USAtoday-2013-10-18">Chris Woodyard,[https://www.usatoday.com/story/money/cars/2013/10/17/elon-musk-tesla-james-bond-submarine/3004955 "Tesla's Elon Musk buys 007's sub to make it real"], USAToday.com, October 18, 2013; accessed November 13, 2013.</ref>
Musk attended the [[Burning Man]] festival in 2004 and has said he first thought up the idea for [[SolarCity]] at the festival.<ref name="KQED-SolarCity"/>
[[Tosca Musk]], Elon's sister, is a filmmaker. She is the founder of Musk Entertainment and has produced various movies.<ref>{{cite web |title=Tosca Musk profile at |url=http://www.muskentertainment.com/toscamusk.html |publisher=Musk entertainment}}</ref>
Musk stated that he wants "to die on Mars, just not on [[Mars landing|impact]]."<ref>Achenbach, Joel. "Elon Musk Wants to Go to Mars" ''National Geographic'' November 2016. p. 41.</ref>
Musk is chairman of the Musk Foundation, which focuses its philanthropic efforts on providing solar-power energy systems in disaster areas. In 2010, the Musk Foundation collaborated with SolarCity to donate a 25-kW solar power system to the South Bay Community Alliance's hurricane response center in [[Coden, Alabama]].<ref>{{cite web |url=http://eon.businesswire.com/news/eon/20101214005733/en/Elon-Musk/SolarCity/Obama |title=Elon Musk and SolarCity Donate Solar Power Project to Coastal Response Center in Alabama |work=Enhanced Online News |publisher=Business Wire |deadurl=yes |archiveurl=https://web.archive.org/web/20111005170916/http://eon.businesswire.com/news/eon/20101214005733/en/Elon-Musk/SolarCity/Obama |archivedate=October 5, 2011 |df=mdy-all }}</ref> In July 2011, the Musk Foundation donated {{US$|250,000}} towards a solar power project in [[Soma, Fukushima|Sōma]], Japan, a city that had been recently devastated by a tsunami.<ref>{{cite web |url=http://www.businesswire.com/news/home/20110729005291/en/Elon-Musk-Donates-Solar-Power-Project-Soma |title=Elon Musk Donates Solar Power Project to Soma City in Fukushima Prefecture, Japan |publisher=BusinessWire.com |accessdate=April 27, 2014}}</ref>
In July 2014, Musk was asked by [[cartoonist]] [[Matthew Inman]] and William Terbo, the grandnephew of [[Nikola Tesla]], to donate {{US$|8&nbsp;million}} toward the construction of the [[Tesla Science Center at Wardenclyffe]].<ref>{{cite web |url=http://theoatmeal.com/comics/tesla_model_s2 |title=What it's like to own a Tesla Model S – Part 2 – The Oatmeal |publisher=theoatmeal.com}}</ref> Ultimately, Musk agreed to donate {{US$|1&nbsp;million}} toward the project and additionally pledged to build a Tesla Supercharger in the museum car park.<ref>{{cite web |url=https://techcrunch.com/2014/07/10/elon-musk-donates-1-million-to-the-oatmeals-nikola-tesla-museum/ |title=Elon Musk Donates Million to the Oatmeal's Nikola Tesla Museum |author=Greg Kumparak |work=TechCrunch |publisher=AOL |accessdate=November 4, 2015}}</ref>
Musk donated {{US$|10&nbsp;million}} to the [[Future of Life Institute]] in January 2015, to run a global research program aimed at keeping [[artificial intelligence]] beneficial to humanity.<ref>{{Citation |year=2015 |title=Elon Musk donates M to keep AI beneficial |publisher=[[Future of Life Institute]] |url=http://futureoflife.org/2015/10/12/elon-musk-donates-10m-to-keep-ai-beneficial |accessdate=January 20, 2015}}</ref><ref name=bi2015/><ref name="mashable_tallinn">{{cite web |url=http://mashable.com/2015/01/13/elon-musk-stephen-hawking-artificial-intelligence |title=Elon Musk Donates M To Make Sure AI Doesn't Go The Way of Skynet |publisher=Mashable |year=2015 |accessdate=June 21, 2015}}</ref>
As of 2015, Musk is a trustee of the [[X Prize Foundation]]<ref>{{cite web |url=http://www.xprize.org/about/board-of-trustees/elon-musk |title=Elon Musk |work=XPRIZE |accessdate=April 19, 2015}}</ref> and a signatory of [[The Giving Pledge]].<ref name="forbes_2012">{{cite news |url=https://www.forbes.com/sites/luisakroll/2012/04/19/the-giving-pledge-signs-on-12-more-wealthy-americans-including-teslas-elon-musk-and-home-depots-arthur-blank |title=The Giving Pledge Signs on 12 More Wealthy Americans Including Tesla's Elon Musk And Home Depot's Arthur Blank |first=Luisa |last=Kroll |work=Forbes |date=April 19, 2012}}</ref>
Musk met his first wife, Canadian author [[Justine Musk|Justine Wilson]], while both were students at Ontario's [[Queen's University]]. They married in 2000 and separated in 2008.<ref>{{cite web |last1=Durand Streisand |first1=Elizabeth |title=A Look at Elon Musk's Rocky Romantic History |url=https://www.yahoo.com/celebrity/blogs/celeb-news/elon-musk-love-life-romantic-history-171340935.html |website=Yahoo |accessdate=May 29, 2017}}</ref> Their first son, Nevada Alexander Musk, died of [[sudden infant death syndrome]] (SIDS) at the age of 10 weeks.<ref name="Starter">{{cite journal |last=Junod |first=Justine |date=November 14, 2012 |year= |title=Elon Musk: Triumph of His Will |url=http://www.esquire.com/news-politics/a16681/elon-musk-interview-1212/ |journal=Esquire |volume= |pages= |via= |magazine= |accessdate=November 28, 2012}}</ref> They later had five sons through [[in vitro fertilization]]<ref>[https://www.youtube.com/watch?v=OxA0LESuUDE&t=23s Justine Musk | TEDxUIUC] (posted June 1, 2017)</ref> – twins in 2004, followed by triplets in 2006. They [[Joint custody (United States)|share custody]] of all five sons.<ref>{{cite news |url=https://www.forbes.com/pictures/mkm45figed/elon-musk-4/ |title=Elon Musk – In Photos: Forbes Life Elon Musk |first=Hannah |last=Elliott |work=Forbes |accessdate=November 4, 2015}}</ref>
In 2008, Musk began dating English actress [[Talulah Riley]], and in 2010, the couple married. In January 2012, Musk announced that he had ended his four-year relationship with Riley,<ref name=forbes20120326/><ref>{{cite news |title=Elon Musk Divorce: Announces Split From Talulah Riley On Twitter |url=http://www.huffingtonpost.com/2012/01/19/elon-musk-divorce_n_1216394.html |accessdate=July 23, 2013 |work=The Huffington Post |date=January 19, 2012 |first=Jennifer |last=Lai}}</ref> tweeting to Riley, "It was an amazing four years. I will love you forever. You will make someone very happy one day."<ref>[http://www.huffingtonpost.com/2012/01/19/elon-musk-divorce_n_1216394.html "Elon Musk Divorce: Announces Split From Talulah Riley On Twitter"], ''[[The Huffington Post]]'', January 19, 2012.</ref> In July 2013, Musk and Riley remarried. In December 2014, Musk filed for a second divorce from Riley; however, the action was withdrawn.<ref>{{Cite news|url=https://www.telegraph.co.uk/news/2016/10/22/elon-musk-and-talulah-riley-divorce-for-a-second-time/|title=Elon Musk and Talulah Riley divorce for a second time|date=2016-10-22|work=The Telegraph|access-date=2018-06-29|language=en-GB|issn=0307-1235}}</ref> The media announced in March 2016 that divorce proceedings were again under way, this time with Riley filing for divorce from Musk.<ref>[http://mashable.com/2016/03/21/elon-musk-divorce/#6zidD2gBOGqs "Billionaire Elon Musk's wife files for divorce"], Mashable.com, March 21, 2016.</ref> The divorce was finalized in late 2016.<ref>{{cite web |url=http://people.com/movies/elon-musk-and-talulah-riley-divorced/ |title=lon Musk and Talulah Riley Are Divorced for a Second Time |work=People |date=November 18, 2016 |accessdate=April 24, 2017 |first=Lindsay |last=Kimble}}</ref>
Musk began dating American actress [[Amber Heard]] in 2016 but the two split up after one year due to their conflicting schedules.<ref>{{Cite web |url=http://www.mercurynews.com/2017/08/06/elon-musk-breaks-up-with-amber-heard-report-says/ |title=Tesla CEO Elon Musk breaks up with Amber Heard, report says |last=Ross |first=Martha |date=August 6, 2017 |website=The Mercury News|access-date=August 24, 2017}}</ref> On May 7, 2018, Musk and Canadian musician [[Grimes (musician)|Grimes]] revealed that they had begun dating.<ref>{{Cite news|url=https://consequenceofsound.net/2018/05/grimes-is-dating-elon-musk-report/|title=Grimes is dating Elon Musk|date=May 7, 2018|work=Consequence of Sound|access-date=May 8, 2018|language=en-US}}</ref>
===Zolpidem usage===
In an apparent admission of mixing [[zolpidem]] (Ambien) and alcohol, Musk tweeted in June 2017: "A little red wine, vintage record, some Ambien ... and magic!"<ref>{{Cite tweet |number=872260000491593728 |user=elonmusk |title=A little red wine, vintage record, some Ambien ... and magic! |author=Elon Musk |author-link=Elon Musk |date=June 7, 2017 |url=https://archive.is/20180111163438/https://twitter.com/elonmusk/status/872260000491593728 }}</ref> Musk gained media attention for mentioning the dangerous drug combination publicly on his social media.<ref>{{Cite news |url=https://www.cnet.com/news/elon-musks-strange-strange-ambien-tweet/ |title=Elon Musk's strange, strange Ambien tweet |last=Matyszczyk |first=Chris |date=June 7, 2017 |work=CNET|access-date=July 9, 2017 |language=en}}</ref><ref>{{Cite web |url=http://mashable.com/2017/06/07/ambien-musk-tweets/ |title=Elon Musk's weird Ambien tweets are back |last=Tan |first=Yvette |date=June 7, 2017 |website=Mashable|access-date=July 9, 2017}}</ref>
==Awards and recognition==
* In 2006, Musk served as a member of the [[United States National Academy of Sciences]] Aeronautics and Space Engineering Board.<ref>{{cite book |title=Priorities in Space Science Enabled by Nuclear Power And Propulsion |publisher=The National Academies Press |year=2006 |url=https://books.google.com/?id=HLJfaKxwb-UC&pg=PT10&dq=Elon+Musk+United+States+National+Academy+of+Sciences+Aeronautics+and+Space+Engineering+Board#v=onepage&q&f=false |isbn=9780309180108 |accessdate=November 4, 2015}}</ref>
* [[Inc Magazine]] Entrepreneur of the Year award for 2007 for his work on Tesla and SpaceX.<ref>{{cite web |title=Entrepreneur of the Year, 2007: Elon Musk |date=December 1, 2007 |first=Max |last=Chafkin |publisher=inc.com |url=http://www.inc.com/magazine/20071201/entrepreneur-of-the-year-elon-musk.html}}</ref>
* 2007 Index Design award for his design of the Tesla Roadster.<ref>{{cite web |title=Tesla Roadster |publisher=Index |year=2007 |url=http://www.indexaward.dk/index.php?option=com_content&view=article&id=89&Itemid=71 |deadurl=yes |archiveurl=https://web.archive.org/web/20120118131526/http://www.indexaward.dk/index.php?option=com_content&view=article&id=89&Itemid=71 |archivedate=January 18, 2012}}</ref> [[Global Green]] 2006 product design award for his design of the Tesla Roadster, presented by [[Mikhail Gorbachev]].<ref>{{cite web |title=Tesla Motors team |publisher=Tesla Motors |url=http://www.teslamotors.com/media/company_team.php}}</ref>
* [[American Institute of Aeronautics and Astronautics]] George Low award for the most outstanding contribution in the field of space transportation in 2007/2008. Musk was recognized for his design of the [[Falcon 1]], the first privately developed liquid-fuel rocket to reach orbit.<ref>{{cite web |title=SpaceX successfully launches Falcon 1 to orbit |publisher=Space Exploration Technologies Corp |year=2008 |url=http://www.spacex.com/press.php?page=20080928}}</ref>
* [[National Wildlife Federation]] 2008 National Conservation Achievement award for Tesla and SolarCity. Other 2008 recipients include journalist [[Thomas Friedman]], U.S. Senator [[Patrick Leahy]] (D-VT), and Florida Governor [[Charlie Crist]].<ref>{{cite web |title=Connie Awards |publisher=National Wildlife Federation |year=2008 |url=http://www.nwf.org/about/connieawards2008.cfm |deadurl=yes |archiveurl=https://web.archive.org/web/20090629052954/http://www.nwf.org/about/connieawards2008.cfm |archivedate=June 29, 2009}}</ref>
* [[National Space Society]]'s Von Braun Trophy in 2008/2009, given for leadership of the most significant achievement in space. Prior recipients include [[Burt Rutan]] and [[Steve Squyres]].<ref>{{cite press |publisher=National Space Society |date=June 17, 2009 |title=Space Community Gathers at National Space Society's ISDC 2009 |url=http://www.nss.org/news/releases/pr20090617.html}}</ref>
* Listed as one of ''[[Time (magazine)|Time]]''{{'}}s 100 people who most affected the world in 2010.<ref name="time">{{cite news |url=http://www.time.com/time/specials/packages/article/0,28804,1984685_1984745_1985495,00.html |work=Time |title=The 2010 Time 100 |date=April 29, 2010 |first=Jon |last=Favreau}}</ref>
* The world governing body for aerospace records, [[Fédération Aéronautique Internationale]], presented Musk in 2010 with the highest award in air and space, the FAI Gold Space Medal, for designing the first privately developed rocket to reach orbit. Prior recipients include [[Neil Armstrong]], [[Burt Rutan]] of [[Scaled Composites]] and [[John Glenn]].<ref>{{cite web |url=http://www.fai.org/envc-awards/envc-news-awards/35094-barron-hilton-and-elon-musk-honoured-with-the-highest-awards |title=Barron Hilton and Elon Musk honoured with the highest FAI awards |publisher=Fédération Aéronautique Internationale |date=December 16, 2010 |accessdate=March 25, 2015 |deadurl=yes |archiveurl=https://web.archive.org/web/20150419204916/http://www.fai.org/envc-awards/envc-news-awards/35094-barron-hilton-and-elon-musk-honoured-with-the-highest-awards |archivedate=April 19, 2015 |df=mdy-all }}</ref>
* Named as one of the 75 most influential people of the 21st century by ''[[Esquire (magazine)|Esquire]]'' magazine.<ref name=esquire/>
* Recognized as a [[Living Legends of Aviation|''Living Legend of Aviation'']] in 2010 by the Kitty Hawk Foundation for creating the successor to the Space Shuttle (Falcon 9 rocket and Dragon spacecraft). Other recipients include [[Buzz Aldrin]] and [[Richard Branson]].<ref>{{cite web |title=Living Legend of Aviation Awards |publisher=Kittie Hawk Air Academy |year=2010 |url=http://www.prnewswire.com/news-releases/7th-annual-living-legends-of-aviationr-awards-ceremony-to-honor-tom-cruise-dr-edwin-buzz-aldrin-and-other-aviation-legends-81274087.html |accessdate=November 4, 2015}}</ref>
* In February 2011, Forbes listed Musk as one of "America's 20 Most Powerful CEOs 40 And Under."<ref name="forbes20110214">{{cite news |last=Smith |first=Jacquelyn |title=America's 20 Most Powerful CEOs 40 And Under |url=https://www.forbes.com/2011/02/14/most-powerful-ceos-40-under-leadership-leaders-young.html |accessdate=February 18, 2011 |work=Forbes |date=February 14, 2011 |quote="''To make this list, you had to be the chief executive of one of the 20 biggest publicly traded companies in the U.S. (as of Feb. 11, by market capitalization) with a CEO aged 40 or under.''"}}</ref>
* In June 2011, Musk was awarded the {{US$|250,000}} [[Heinlein Prize for Advances in Space Commercialization]]<ref>{{cite web |work=The Heinlein Prize |url=http://www.heinleinprize.com/2011/07/heinlein-prize-2011-awarded-to-elon-musk |title=Heinlein Prize Honors Elon Musk of SpaceX |first=Art |last=Dula |date=June 16, 2011 |deadurl=yes |archiveurl=https://web.archive.org/web/20150402101614/http://www.heinleinprize.com/2011/07/heinlein-prize-2011-awarded-to-elon-musk/ |archivedate=April 2, 2015 |df=}}</ref>
* In 2012, Musk was awarded the [[Royal Aeronautical Society]]'s highest award: a Gold Medal.<ref>{{cite web |title=2012 RAeS Gold Medal |url=http://media.aerosociety.com/aerospace-insight/2012/11/23/video-elon-musk-interview/7553 |deadurl=yes |archiveurl=https://web.archive.org/web/20121128025956/http://media.aerosociety.com/aerospace-insight/2012/11/23/video-elon-musk-interview/7553/ |archivedate=November 28, 2012 |df=}}</ref>
* Musk was the 2012 recipient of ''[[Smithsonian (magazine)|Smithsonian]]'' magazine's American Ingenuity Award in the Technology category.
* In 2013, Musk was named the [[Fortune (magazine)|Fortune]] Businessperson of the year for SpaceX, SolarCity, and Tesla.<ref>{{Cite news |url=https://blogs.wsj.com/speakeasy/2013/11/21/teslas-elon-musk-is-fortune-businessperson-of-the-year |title=Tesla's Elon Musk is Fortune Businessperson of the Year |author=Jonathan Welsh |work=[[The Wall Street Journal]] |date=November 21, 2013}}</ref>
* In 2015, he was awarded [[IEEE Honorary Membership]].<ref>{{cite web |url=http://www.ieee.org/documents/hon_mem_rl.pdf |title=IEEE Honorary Membership Recipients |publisher=IEEE |accessdate=March 25, 2015}}</ref>
* In June 2016, [[Business Insider]] named Musk one of the "Top 10 Business Visionaries Creating Value for the World" along with [[Mark Zuckerberg]] and [[Sal Khan]].<ref>{{cite web |title=The top 10 business visionaries creating value for the world |url=http://www.businessinsider.com/top-ten-business-visionaries-creating-value-for-the-world-2016-6 |website=Business Insider |publisher=Business Insider Inc.}}</ref>
* In December 2016, Musk was ranked 21st on [[Forbes list of The World's Most Powerful People]].<ref name="auto1"/>
* Musk was elected a [[List of Fellows of the Royal Society elected in 2018|Fellow of the Royal Society (FRS) in 2018]].<ref>{{cite web|url=https://royalsociety.org/news/2018/05/distinguished-scientists-elected-fellows-royal-society-2018|title=Distinguished scientists elected as Fellows and Foreign Members of the Royal Society|website=Royalsociety.org|accessdate=May 10, 2018}}</ref><ref>{{cite web|url=https://royalsociety.org/people/elon-musk-13829/|title=Elon Musk|website=Royalsociety.org|accessdate=May 10, 2018}}</ref>
==In popular media==
In ''[[Iron Man 2]]'' (2010), Musk met [[Tony Stark]] ([[Robert Downey Jr.]]) in a restaurant, and had some brief lines regarding an "idea for an electric jet."<ref>{{cite web|last1=Tate|first1=Ryan|title=10 Awkward Hollywood Cameos by Tech Founders|url=https://www.wired.com/2012/09/founders-awkward-hollywood-cameos/|website=Wired.com|publisher=Wired.com|accessdate=December 1, 2017|archiveurl=https://web.archive.org/web/20171201034116/https://www.wired.com/2012/09/founders-awkward-hollywood-cameos/|archivedate=December 1, 2017|dead-url=no}}</ref>
In January 2015, Musk made a guest appearance playing himself on ''[[The Simpsons]]'' in an episode titled "[[The Musk Who Fell to Earth]]"; the episode poked fun at many of Musk's ideas.<ref>{{cite web |url=http://www.businessinsider.com/elon-musk-spacex-tesla-on-the-simpsons-2015-1 |title=Elon Musk SpaceX Tesla on the Simpsons – Business Insider |date=January 27, 2015 |work=Business Insider |accessdate=April 19, 2015}}</ref>
In November 2015, Musk appeared in an episode of ''[[The Big Bang Theory]]'', playing himself, volunteering at a [[soup kitchen]] with Howard.<ref>{{cite web |title=Tesla CEO Elon Musk To Appear on Upcoming Episode of the Big Bang Theory - CBS.com |url=http://www.cbs.com/shows/big_bang_theory/news/1004869/tesla-ceo-elon-musk-to-appear-on-upcoming-episode-of-the-big-bang-theory/ |website=CBS |accessdate=December 4, 2015}}</ref>
Musk was featured in the 2015 environmental documentary ''[[Racing Extinction]]'', in which a custom [[Tesla Model S]] was designed to help project images of critically endangered species onto public buildings, including the [[Empire State Building]] and [[Vatican City|the Vatican]].<ref>{{cite web |last1=Field |first1=Kyle |title=Tesla Stars In "Racing Extinction" Documentary |url=http://cleantechnica.com/2015/12/02/tesla-stars-racing-extinction-documentary/ |publisher=CleanTechnica |accessdate=July 11, 2016}}</ref>
In 2016, Musk appeared as himself in the romantic comedy film ''[[Why Him?]]'' where he was briefly met by one of the main characters, Ned Flemming played by [[Bryan Cranston]], in a bar at a party.<ref>{{cite web |url=https://www.entrepreneur.com/video/286858 |title='Why Him?' Director on Elon Musk's Amazing 'I Can't Come to Work Today' Excuse |first=Dan |last=Bova |date= |work=entrepreneur.com |accessdate=January 29, 2017}}</ref>
Also in 2016, Musk was referenced by [[Firestorm (comics)#Live-action|Dr. Martin Stein]] on [[The CW]] time-travel TV show ''[[Legends of Tomorrow|DC's Legends of Tomorrow]]''. During [[time travel]] to the past, Stein meets his younger self and introduced himself as Elon Musk, to disguise his own identity.<ref>{{cite web |url=http://observer.com/2016/01/dcs-legends-of-tomorrow-power-rankings-week-2-burn-baby-burn |title='DC's Legends of Tomorrow' Power Rankings, Week 2: Burn, Baby, Burn – Observer |date=January 29, 2016 |work=Observer |accessdate=February 7, 2016}}</ref>
In October 2017, Musk was prematurely immortalized as a historic pioneer on the [[CBS All Access]] series ''[[Star Trek: Discovery]]''. Set in the year 2256, Captain [[Gabriel Lorca]] attempts to motivate a scientist on his ship by asking him "How do you want to be remembered in history? Alongside the [[Wright Brothers]], Elon Musk, [[Zefram Cochrane]]? Or as a failed fungus expert. A selfish little man who put the survival of his own ego before the lives of others?"<ref>{{cite web|last1=Boyle|first1=Alan|title=‘Star Trek: Discovery’ ranks Elon Musk alongside Wright Brothers and warp drive|url=https://www.geekwire.com/2017/star-trek-discovery-elon-musk/|website=Geekwire.com|publisher=Geek Wire|accessdate=October 13, 2017|archiveurl=https://web.archive.org/web/20171013134142/https://www.geekwire.com/2017/star-trek-discovery-elon-musk/|archivedate=October 13, 2017|dead-url=no}}</ref><ref>{{cite web|last1=Mack|first1=Eric|title=How Elon Musk goes down in history with the Wright Brothers|url=https://www.cnet.com/news/elon-musk-star-trek-wright-brothers-mars-spacex/|website=CNET.com|publisher=CNET|accessdate=October 13, 2017|archiveurl=https://web.archive.org/web/20171013134422/https://www.cnet.com/news/elon-musk-star-trek-wright-brothers-mars-spacex/|archivedate=October 13, 2017|dead-url=no}}</ref>
According to an article in techcrunch.com published the day after the episode aired, this mention is "also interesting because of its notable omission of Amazon and [[Blue Origin]] founder [[Jeff Bezos]]: This other space entrepreneur is such a big fan of Star Trek that he pitched and succeeded in landing a cameo in [[Star Trek Beyond]] as an alien being, but he doesn’t rate a mention from Lorca among the spaceflight pantheon."<ref>{{cite web|last1=Etherington|first1=Darrell|title=Elon Musk gets a nod as a space pioneer from ‘Star Trek: Discovery’|url=https://techcrunch.com/2017/10/09/elon-musk-gets-a-nod-as-a-space-pioneer-from-star-trek-discovery/|website=Techcrunch.com|publisher=Tech Crunch|accessdate=October 13, 2017|archiveurl=https://web.archive.org/web/20171013134811/https://techcrunch.com/2017/10/09/elon-musk-gets-a-nod-as-a-space-pioneer-from-star-trek-discovery/|archivedate=October 13, 2017|dead-url=no}}</ref>
Musk is significantly referenced numerous times in [[Hat Films]]' 2017 album, ''Neon Musk''.<ref>{{cite web|title=Neon Musk by Hat Films|work=[[Bandcamp]]|url=https://yogscaststudios.bandcamp.com/album/neon-musk|accessdate=February 6, 2018}}</ref>
In November 2017, Musk appeared as himself in the Season 1, Episode 6, episode of ''The Big Bang Theory'' spin-off prequel series ''[[Young Sheldon]]''. The successful first landing of a [[SpaceX]] [[Falcon 9]] first stage on a [[Autonomous spaceport drone ship|drone ship]] on April 8, 2016, is shown being covered by [[CNN]]. This is followed by a scene where Musk is shown alone in his office reading the notebook that young Sheldon mailed [[NASA]] in 1989 (a scene shown earlier in the episode) containing calculations detailing how this feat could be accomplished.<ref>{{cite web|last1=McCarthy|first1=Tyler|title=Young Sheldon Episode 6 recap: Sheldon discovers physics|url=http://www.foxnews.com/entertainment/2017/11/30/young-sheldon-episode-6-recap-sheldon-discovers-physics.html|website=Foxnews.com|publisher=Fox News|accessdate=December 1, 2017|archiveurl=https://web.archive.org/web/20171201031538/http://www.foxnews.com/entertainment/2017/11/30/young-sheldon-episode-6-recap-sheldon-discovers-physics.html|archivedate=December 1, 2017|dead-url=no}}</ref>
==Further reading==
* Davenport, Christian. ''The Space Barons; Elon Musk. Jeff Bezos, and the Quest to Colonize the Cosmos''. PublicAffairs (2018). {{ISBN|978-1610398299}}
* Fernholz, Tim. ''Rocket Billionaires: Elon Musk, Jeff Bezos, and the New Space Race''. Houghton Mifflin Harcourt (2018). {{ISBN|978-1-328-66223-1}}
* [[Ashlee Vance|Vance, Ashlee]]. [[Elon Musk: Tesla, SpaceX, and the Quest for a Fantastic Future|''Elon Musk: How the Billionaire CEO of SpaceX and Tesla is Shaping our Future'']]. Virgin Books (2015). {{ISBN|9780753555620}}. [http://energyfuse.org/ashlee-vance-separates-fact-from-fiction-on-elon-musk-ceo-of-tesla-and-spacex/ Afterthoughts by Ashlee Vance]
==External links==
{{wikimedia|collapsible=true|wikt=no|species=no|voy=no|d=Q317521|c=Category:Elon Musk|q=Elon Musk}}
* {{IMDb name|1907769}}
* {{cite web |title=Fast Track |first=Mark |last=Gimien |url=http://www.salon.com/1999/08/17/elon_musk/ |date=August 17, 1999 |work=Salon}}
* [http://www.spaceref.com/news/viewsr.html?pid=16252 Statement of Elon Musk at House Space and Aeronautics Subcommittee Hearings on the Future Market for Commercial Space] (2005)
* [https://web.archive.org/web/20110829084104/http://gawker.com/valleywag/tech/paypal/an-alternate-history-according-to-elon-musk-230076.php History of PayPal], gawker.com (2007)
* {{cite news |first=Brandon |last=Bailey |url=http://www.mercurynews.com/business/ci_15138666 |title=Elon Musk: Will his Silicon Valley story have a Hollywood ending? |work=San Jose Mercury News |date=2010}}
* [https://web.archive.org/web/20130516054940/http://www.mediabistro.com/galleycat/the-science-fiction-books-that-inspired-elon-musk_b67209 "Science Fiction Books That Inspired Elon Musk"], MediaBistro.com, March 19, 2013.
* [https://web.archive.org/web/20150516202413/http://www.bloomberg.com/graphics/2015-elon-musk-spacex/ "Elon Musk’s Space Dream Almost Killed Tesla"] (''Bloomberg'', 2015)
* {{C-SPAN| elonmusk }}
* {{cite web |url=http://www.hobbyspace.com/AAdmin/archive/Interviews/Systems/ElonMusk.html |title=An interview with Elon Musk |publisher=HobbySpace |date=August 5, 2003}}
* {{cite web |url=http://www.carteblanche.co.za/Display/Display.asp?Id=2879 |title=Lift off with Elon Musk |publisher=Carte Blanche |date=September 4, 2005 |deadurl=yes |archiveurl=https://web.archive.org/web/20070928010510/http://www.carteblanche.co.za/Display/Display.asp?Id=2879 |archivedate=September 28, 2007}}
* {{cite web |first=Chris |last=Bergin |url=http://www.nasaspaceflight.com/2006/01/spacexs-musk-and-thompson-q-and-a |title=SpaceX's Musk and Thompson Q and A |publisher=nasaspaceflight.com |date=January 20, 2006}}
* [http://epicfu.com/2008/06/tesla-supercar-how-to-get-chea.html Video interview of Elon Musk by Zadi Diaz of EPIC FU], June 17, 2008. Retrieved April 27, 2014
* {{cite news |url=http://www.timesonline.co.uk/tol/life_and_style/men/article5433496.ece |title=Forget the bungalow, retire to Mars |work=Sunday Times |date=January 4, 2009 |location=London, UK |first=Sadie |last=Gray |accessdate=April 27, 2014}}
* [http://www.oninnovation.com/topics/detail.aspx?playlist=1421&title=Elon_Musk Musk profile] onInnovation.com. Retrieved April 27, 2014
* [https://web.archive.org/web/20110603172350/http://www.techcrunch.tv/interviews-and-profiles/watch?id=s2dmptMTrvj6oCtNZd_dfhFz5WEaouPJ An interview at the Founders Showcase], August 5, 2010
* [https://www.theguardian.com/technology/2010/aug/01/elon-musk-spacex-rocket-mars Elon Musk: 'I'm planning to retire to Mars'], video interview for ''The Guardian'', August 1, 2010
* [http://www.cbsnews.com/video/watch/?id=7402645n ''60 Minutes'' interview]; March 18, 2012.
* [https://www.bbc.co.uk/news/health-17439490 A 20 minute interview about sending humans to Mars] with BBC's Jonathan Amos, March 20, 2012
* [http://www.ted.com/talks/elon_musk_the_mind_behind_tesla_spacex_solarcity.html Elon Musk: The mind behind Tesla, SpaceX, SolarCity], ted.com. Retrieved April 27, 2014
* {{cite web |url=https://www.reddit.com/r/IAmA/comments/2rgsan/i_am_elon_musk_ceocto_of_a_rocket_company_ama |title=I am Elon Musk, CEO/CTO of a rocket company, AMA! |last=Musk |first=Elon |date=January 6, 2015 |website=Reddit.com |accessdate=January 7, 2015}}
* [http://www.fastcompany.com/3052889/elon-musk-powers-up-inside-teslas-5-billion-gigafactory Elon Musk Powers Up: Inside Tesla's Billion Gigafactory] ''[[Fast Company (magazine)|Fast Company]]'', November 2015
* [https://web.archive.org/web/20170428051740/https://www.bloomberg.com/news/videos/b/fec69071-ed75-4021-96ad-9f54b8230d07 Elon Musk Profiled], Bloomberg Risk Takers (45min) - {{youtube|mh45igK4Esw|same video}} <!--prevent linkrot-->
* [http://www.ted.com/talks/elon_musk_the_future_we_re_building_and_boring Elon Musk: The future we're building — and boring], ted.com. Retrieved May 7, 2017
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Latest revision as of 01:32, 11 September 2018

Elon Musk is a Business Magnet.